Psychology Chapter 5 Quiz Questions

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Which term best describes a voxel?

A small cube-shaped area of the brain about 2 mm on each side.

What was the general finding of Gibson and Peterson's reversible figure/ground study?

The meaningfulness of an image had a large effect on figure-ground segregation.

According to the Gestalt principle, why did Corey perceive two groups of birds when some seagulls changed direction?

Common fate.

What term best describes objects in the foreground of a scene?

Figure.

What characteristic defines a voxel?

It is small and cube-shaped, approximately 2 mm on each side.

In Gibson and Peterson's study, what effect did meaningfulness have on figure-ground perception?

The meaningfulness of an image had a large effect on figure-ground segregation.

What is the most likely thing Sally will remember about the reversible-image illusion she saw?

The location of the vase in the illusion

What is the central feature of the reversible-image illusion Sally observed?

The color contrast between the vase and the blue box

What might capture Sally's attention the most in the reversible-image illusion she experienced?

The position of the vase in relation to the blue box

Which aspect of the reversible-image illusion would likely stand out to Sally as the most intriguing?

The ambiguity in perceiving both vase and box

What detail of the reversible-image illusion would Sally be most likely to describe to others?

The constant flip between seeing a vase and a box

Which feature of the reversible-image illusion would Sally be most inclined to discuss with her friends?

The optical illusion making it reversible

What condition results when two eyes receive totally different images and the brain can't combine the two images?

Binocular rivalry

When figure-ground segregation occurs, what does border ownership refer to?

Is perceived to be associated with the figure.

What is the primary purpose of a masking stimulus?

Stop persistence of vision.

Which type of object evokes a strong sense of surrounding space when seen or imagined in isolation?

Spatially-bound

In Kamitani and Tong (2005), how many orientations were tested with the 'orientation decoders' developed?

Eight

What happens during visual masking?

The figure seems to blur into the background.

What did Gestalt psychologists use the example of illusory contours to support?

Perceptions are formed by combining sensations

Which problem demonstrates that numerous physical stimuli can create the same image on the retina?

Inverse projection

What principle explains the grouping of stimuli based on shared orientation, shape, and/or size?

Similarity

In Palmer's (1975) study, which picture was identified correctly 80% of the time after viewing a kitchen scene?

A loaf of bread matching the context

The Bev Doolittle print of 'The Forest Has Eyes' demonstrates which principle affecting perceptual organization?

Common region

Which statement accurately reflects the Gestalt view of perception?

'The whole is equal to the sum of its parts'

What do humans use to distinguish shape from shading?

Light-from-above assumption

In the study by Tong, et al. (1998) using binocular rivalry to test brain responses, what happened when the person perceived a house?

PPA increased, but not in the FFA.

What is a characteristic of current computer programs in identifying objects?

Make errors that a human would never make

What would you expect when reviewing dozens of photographs of various scenes on social media based on the text?

Horizontal and vertical orientations most common

What type of orientation would be most common in photographs of various scenes based on the information provided?

Horizontal and vertical orientations

In identifying objects, how do current computer programs compare to human performance based on the text?

Below human performance

What type of procedure involves injecting a radioactive isotope into the bloodstream and tracing it through the brain?

Removing or destroying a specific area of the brain

In which part of the brain does an electrode respond best to orientations of 45 degrees?

Adjacent column of cells

Where do most signals travel via the optic nerve from the retina?

Lateral geniculate nucleus

Which brain structure was removed in Patient H.M. to control his epileptic seizures?

Hippocampi

What is the main purpose of placing an electrode in an orientation column that responds best to 45 degrees?

To stimulate adjacent columns of cells

What is the term for the difference in intensity between light bars and dark bars?

Contrast

In the context of cortical organization, what effect arises from humans having more cortical neurons responding to horizontal and vertical orientations than slanted orientations?

Oblique

What is the term used to describe a visual stimulus that contains alternating black and white bars?

Grating

In an illusion where line 1 appears longer than line 2 but line 2 is actually longer, what do the results suggest about the interaction between the ventral and dorsal stream?

The visual illusion affects both streams.

Regarding the organization of columns in the cortex, which statement is true?

An orientation column can contain many location columns.

What is the term for a stimulus that contains alternating black and white bars?

Interlacing pattern

What is the main reason for the cortical magnification factor in humans?

A small area in the peripheral retina accounts for a large area on the cortex.

What did researchers find about the properties of the ventral and dorsal streams using techniques of recording from neurons and ablation?

Established by two different types of bipolar cells in the retina.

In Ungerleider and Mishkin’s research, what difficulty did monkeys who had their temporal lobes removed experience?

Discriminating between objects.

What term refers to the fact that neurons' response properties can be shaped by perceptual experience?

Plasticity.

What did patient D.F.'s results with visual form agnosia demonstrate about perception and action?

The inability to draw items is due to a lack of general knowledge.

Which finding resulted from Ungerleider and Mishkin’s (1982) research involving monkeys with temporal lobe removal?

Discriminating between objects.

When a large object, such as a tree trunk, is present, what happens to the firing of neurons?

Every neuron in one location column fires.

What kind of pathway is the dorsal stream according to Milner and Goodale?

Action pathway

Which lobe does the dorsal pathway go to?

Parietal

In what type of relationship are the results of losing Function A in Area A and losing Function B in Area B best described as?

Double dissociation

If a kitten is exposed only to horizontal lines, what would happen to its cortical cell responses?

Cells would respond to horizontal lines, but not to vertical lines.

What area in the temporal lobe specializes in recognizing faces?

FFA

Where is the blind spot located?

Where the optic nerve leaves the eye

Which condition results in the destruction of peripheral rod receptors, leading to poorer peripheral vision?

Retinitis pigmentosa

What chemical reacts to light to start the process of transduction?

Retinal

Why do newborns have poor acuity?

The rods are not developed at birth

What stimuli are used in the preferential looking technique of testing infant acuity?

Gratings

In Limulus, what stimulation will result in the greatest firing rate recorded from receptor 'A'?

Stimulating A with 10 units and stimulating B with 10 units

In the study mentioned, where do horizontal cells converge onto?

Peripheral cones

What is the correct statement regarding the Purkinje shift?

Blues appear brighter than reds in well-lit conditions, and blues also appear brighter than reds in dim conditions.

Which step of the perceptual process is associated most closely with converging circuits involving excitation and inhibition?

Neural processing

What is the correct method to measure cone spectral sensitivity?

Looking up and blinking

Which wavelength on the electromagnetic spectrum corresponds to radio waves?

X-rays

When comparing how rods and cones converge onto other retinal neurons, what is the correct relationship?

Rods converge more than foveal cones

What does human lateral inhibition most likely involve?

Bipolar cells

Which term best describes a retinal condition that destroys the cones in the fovea?

Macular degeneration

What process is triggered by the isomerization of a single pigment molecule?

Chain reaction

In the context of vision, convergence results in what changes in sensitivity and acuity?

Increased sensitivity and decreased acuity

What signifies that an eyeball is too long, resulting in difficulty seeing far away objects?

Axial myopia

Where does our perception of the environment begin according to the text?

Proximal stimulus

What is the primary function of the cell body in a neuron?

Holding the mechanism that keeps the cell alive

What aspect of the nerve fiber is changed to create the flow of ions that lead to an action potential?

Permeability

Which of the following is NOT a step in synaptic transmission?

Chlorine rushes out of the neuron

When a neuron is at rest, what is its electrical potential?

$-70$ millivolts

What is the term for the question regarding how physiologic processes lead to our experiences?

Neuro-physiological question

What is the principle called where specific functions are served by specific cortical areas?

Modularity

Which part of the neuron is primarily responsible for receiving signals from other neurons?

Receptor

What is the main limitation of fMRI technology when trying to understand brain activity?

Cannot detect the activity of individual neurons

What aspect of the action potential phase involves the movement of ions into the axon?

Sodium channel

In neural representation, what term describes the perception of a painful stimulus and multiple responses within the body?

Distributed representation

What key feature characterizes the coding by the pattern of firing of a large number of neurons?

Population

What type of input affects the postsynaptic neuron's rate of firing?

Both excitation and inhibition

What happens to the amplitude of the action potential of a single neuron as stimulus intensity increases?

The amplitude of the action potential increases

What is a characteristic of a 'grandmother' cell?

Fires in response to one specific stimulus

How did Quiroga et al. (2008) study sensory coding?

Using implanted electrodes in the temporal lobe of epileptic patients

Which brain imaging technique can create images of brain structures but cannot indicate neural activity?

MRI

What type of ion flows into the neuron when a signal starts to come through the axon?

Na+

How is the signal from a single neuron typically recorded?

A recording electrode and a reference electrode can measure the difference in charge

What type of task best describes the game 'Whack-a-Mole'?

Parallel task

In the perceptual process, what is analogous to the pressure from a button press being converted into electrical energy?

Transduction

Which type of processing is involved when trying to read a note with poor handwriting?

Top-down processing

Which psychophysical method presents stimuli in varying intensities in ascending and descending orders?

Method of limits

When a patient who has had a stroke is asked to name an object by a neurologist, what aspect of cognition is being tested?

Recognition

What does the method of magnitude estimation yield a measure of?

Perceived magnitude

What cognitive ability allows the resident to reassure their alarmed friend about the loud bangs near the railroad tracks?

Recognition

Which statement accurately describes the steps of the perceptual process?

The sequence of steps is dynamic and constantly changing.

What type of processing is based on stimuli reaching the receptors?

Bottom-up

In what method does a participant assign a numerical value to a 'standard stimulus'?

Magnitude estimation

When a driver notices that closer stationary objects appear to move faster than farther ones, what technique of perception is being used?

Relative motion perception

What is the term for a technique where participants are given a 'standard stimulus' to rate its intensity?

Magnitude scaling

What is the primary function of Fechner’s psychophysical methods?

To measure mental activity quantitatively

Which method is NOT used to measure the quantitative relationship between stimulus and perception?

Behavioral observations

In the context of brain functions, what does the question 'What do you see?' primarily inquire about?

Recognition

When did computer scientists develop 'Perceiving machines' that can negotiate the environment with human-like ease?

They have not been developed yet

Which brain structure is responsible for language, memory, and thinking in addition to creating perceptions?

Cerebral cortex

'Activating sensory receptors' is a critical step in which process?

Experiencing what you want to experience

Visual form agnosia is a problem related to which step in the perceptual process?

Recognition

In the perceptual process, which category represents the first stage?

Stimuli

When designing adapted products for individuals with difficulty grasping items, what question is most likely on the intern's mind during observation?

How do the children interact with the crayons?

Which phenomenon involves the perception of a painful stimulus and multiple bodily responses?

Transduction

What aspect characterizes the dorsal pathway in visual processing?

High spatial resolution

Test your knowledge on topics related to delayed processing, binocular rivalry, and visual masking in Chapter 5 of psychology. Questions cover concepts like the brain's ability to combine different images and border ownership during figure-ground segregation.

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