PSYC 5130 Transduction: Photoreceptors Quiz

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40 Questions

Which type of photoreceptor cells are more abundant in the human eye?

Rods

Where in the retina do cones have a higher concentration than rods?

Fovea

Which part of the retina is responsible for the highest acuity vision?

Fovea

What is the function of the extraocular muscles in the eye?

Move the eye

What is the main difference between rod and cone cells?

Light sensitivity

Which cells allow light to directly reach the photoreceptors without passing through other retinal layers?

Cells in the fovea

What is the first step in the process of visual perception?

Transduction

What is the resting potential in most neurons?

-70 mV

Which type of ganglion cells are excited by light in the central field and inhibited by light in the surrounding field?

ON cells

What effect occurs when ganglion cells are excited or inhibited for a prolonged period of time?

Rebound effect

Which type of ganglion cells briefly detect moving or suddenly appearing stimuli?

ON/OFF ganglion cells

In the receptive fields of ganglion cells, what is emphasized in areas where luminance changes sharply?

Edges

Which theory states that ganglion cells exhibit a rebound effect after being excited or inhibited for a prolonged period?

Opponent Process Theory

What type of cell is primarily responsible for perceiving edge information in visual stimuli?

Cone cells

Which visual phenomenon involves the creation of emphasis on areas with sharp luminance changes?

Mach bands

'ON' and 'OFF' ganglion cells respond differently to stimuli presented in which parts of their receptive fields?

'ON' responds to the center, 'OFF' responds to the surround

What is the main difference between rod cells and cone cells?

Cone cells are responsible for color vision, while rod cells are responsible for low-light vision.

What is a potential cause of color blindness according to the text?

Anomalies in one or more of the three types of cone opsins.

Which theory proposes that mixing blue, green, and red receptor types gives us color perception?

Trichromatic Theory

What happens to a color-sensitive ganglion cell's firing rate when its receptive field is illuminated with a complementary color?

The firing rate decreases.

Which type of color blindness is characterized by a lack of the red cone?

Protanopia

How does the location of a neuron's receptive field depend on visual information?

It depends on the location of photoreceptors in the retina.

What is the main idea behind the Opponent Process Theory?

When a portion is illuminated with a complementary color, firing rate decreases.

In terms of rod and cone distribution in the retina, which statement is correct?

Cones are concentrated in the fovea for high acuity vision, while rods are more prevalent in the periphery.

Which cells in the retina are responsible for color vision?

Cone cells

What type of acuity is typically higher in the fovea compared to the periphery of the retina?

Spatial acuity

Which area of the brain is responsible for processing information from the optic nerves before transmitting it to the visual cortex?

Dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)

What is a characteristic of 'Simple' Visual Cortex Cells according to Hubel and Wiesel?

Respond to a bar of light in a particular orientation

What is the main cause of color blindness in humans?

Deficiency in cone cell types

In the visual pathway, where do the axons of ganglion cells join together and cross over to form the optic chiasm?

At the base of the brain

'Center-Surround Fields' in retinal ganglion cells refer to:

Patterns that enhance contrast perception

'Extrastriate Cortex' refers to brain regions beyond which area?

'Striate Cortex'

What is the main difference between rod cells and cone cells?

Rods work under low-intensity light, while cones require more light.

What happens when light strikes a photoreceptor?

Hyperpolarization occurs.

How do ganglion cells in the fovea differ from those in the periphery?

Ganglion cells in the periphery receive input from more photoreceptors than those in the fovea.

What effect does light have on rhodopsin and cone-opsin?

Light activates an enzyme that breaks down the messenger for opening Na+ channels.

What process leads to hyperpolarization of the photoreceptors?

Absorption of light by rhodopsin or cone-opsin

How does decreased neurotransmitter release from a photoreceptor affect a bipolar cell?

Leads to depolarization

What happens when a photoreceptor releases less neurotransmitter?

Ganglion cell is inhibited

How do rods and cones differ in their response to light intensity?

Rods require more light to respond compared to cones.

Test your knowledge on photoreceptors and transduction in the context of PSYC 5130. Questions cover topics such as resting potential, dark current, hyperpolarization in response to light, and the role of photopigments.

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