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Post-War Rehabilitation and Philippine Presidents

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233 Questions

What was the significance of the passage of the Jones Law in 1916?

It formalized the US promise of Philippine independence

What was the major impact of the Japanese occupation on the Philippines' road to independence?

It interrupted the process of gaining independence

Who was the first elected president of the Commonwealth Republic?

Manuel L. Quezon

What was the significance of the Tydings-McDuffie Act in 1934?

It secured the date for the Philippine independence

What was the target date for the Philippine independence?

July 4, 1946

What was the role of Manuel L. Quezon during the Japanese occupation?

He was in exile and continued to push for the Philippine independence

Who took over as the leader of the government in 1945-1946?

Osmena

What was one of the issues that caused the Nacionalista Party to split into two factions?

Peasant mobilization

Who did Luis Taruc, the leader of the Huks, support in the 1946 elections?

Osmena

Why did the landed elite fear Osmena's potential presidency?

They feared he would revive Quezon's Social Justice program

Who did not support Roxas in the 1946 elections?

The Huks

What was the result of the 1946 elections?

Roxas won by a small margin.

What was one of the main issues in rehabilitating Manila after the war?

Inflation due to high prices of goods

What was the main provision of the parity rights granted to Americans under the Bell Trade Act?

Free access to the Philippines' natural resources

What was the duration of the free trade relations between the Philippines and America under the Bell Trade Act?

8 years

What was the consequence of the combination of the Rehabilitation Act and the Bell Trade Act on the Philippines' economy?

It increased the country's dependence on agriculture

What was the primary concern for people in the Philippines, according to Severino Garcia?

The needs of the belly

Who benefited from the post-war rehabilitation efforts in the Philippines?

Wealthy Filipino families and American-owned companies

What was the purpose of the Rehabilitation Finance Corporation?

To sell material worth 200 million pesos

How much money did the Rehabilitation Finance Corporation turn over to the government after three years of operation?

28 million pesos

What can be inferred about the social circles of the wealthy Filipino families and President Roxas?

They were the same social circles

What was a major consequence of the economic collapse in the Philippines after WWII?

A rise in labor groups' demands for increased support for the poor

What was a major criticism of Roxas' administration in rural areas?

His close relationships with the landed elite

What was the purpose of the US maintaining control over bases in the Philippines and Japan?

To ensure the mutual protection of both countries

What was the general sentiment of the Philippine people after achieving independence?

It was seen as a major disappointment

What was the impact of the post-war conditions on the Philippines' sovereignty?

It resulted in a significant increase in social unrest

What was a major issue with the taxation system in the Philippines after WWII?

It was not reformed

What was the main concern for the Hukbalahap after the war?

To have a plan in place for when the Americans took over the country again

What was a rule committed to by the Communist Party of the Philippines (PKP)?

To prevent collaborators from holding political office

What was the context of the Hukbalahap Rebellion?

The rebellion was a response to the American takeover after the war

What was the significance of the Americans coming back to the Philippines?

They would take over the country again

Who led the people in Central Luzon?

The Huk

What was the focus of the Huk after the war?

Towards Liberation

What event in December 1945 led to rising tensions between tenants and landlords?

The landlords abandoned the 60-40 share agreement

What was the purpose of the private armies and civilian armies employed by the landlords?

To protect the landlords against the Huks

Why did the Huks start organizing?

To protect themselves from eviction and unemployment

What was one of the main goals of the Pambansang Kaisahan ng mga Magbubukid (PKM)?

All of the above

What happened to the Huk members whose names were circulated to the landlords?

They faced eviction and unemployment

What was the result of the military's presence in Central Luzon from late 1945 to April 1946?

Central Luzon became heavily militarized

What was the main goal of the Democratic Alliance in the 1946 elections?

To form its own slate and replace landlords and collaborators in office

What happened to Patricio del Rosario in February 1946?

He was murdered by civilian guards

Why did the Democratic Alliance initially decide not to field its own presidential candidate?

They wanted to ensure Roxas did not win the presidency

What was the outcome of the Pacification Program initiated by Roxas?

It ended in the murder of Juan Feleo and the start of the Huk rebellion

What was the main objective of the Hukbalahap during the 8-year rebellion?

To return to guerrilla activities and fight for social gains

What was the sentiment of the Filipino people after achieving independence?

They were determined to fight for their social gains and democracy

What was the reason behind the American forces' hostility towards the Huks?

The Huks were competitors to the USAFFE guerrilla

What was the outcome of the trial of the 109 Huk guerrillas?

They were massacred without trial

What was the condition for the surrender of the Hukbalahap?

Providing a roster of Huk soldiers to the President

What was the role of Silvestre Liwanag in the context of the text?

He was a witness to the Malolos Massacre

What was the method used by the American forces to deceive the Huks?

Promising them newer arms in exchange for their old ones

What was the significance of the date February 19, 1945?

It was the day of the Malolos Massacre

What contributed to the decline of peasant support for the Huk Rebellion?

The peasants' economic interests

What was a consequence of the massive migration from Huk-influenced areas to Mindanao?

Distillation of social unrest

Who surrendered to President Quirino in 1954, marking the end of the Huk Rebellion?

Luis Taruc

What was a factor that contributed to the growth in strength and popularity of the Armed Forces of the Philippines?

The support of the Americans

What was the context in which the Hukbalahap Rebellion took place?

The Japanese occupation of the Philippines

What was a significant factor that contributed to Magsaysay's success in dealing with the Huks?

His connection to the Americans

What did Magsaysay do in his inaugural address?

He proclaimed himself a servant of the people

What was a key feature of Magsaysay's administration?

Strong executive branch and civic action programs

Why was Magsaysay's image different from that of past presidents?

He was from a labor background

What was the purpose of the 'civic action programs' implemented by Magsaysay?

To solve people's problems with the help of soldiers

Why was Magsaysay successful in his administration?

Because of his connection to the Americans and his labor background

What was unique about Magsaysay's approach to governance?

He mobilized social forces directly.

What was a weakness of Magsaysay's personalized presidency?

Presidential agencies had little institutional value after his term.

What was the outcome of Magsaysay's attempt to pass the Land Reform Act of 1955?

The act was weakened by amendments, making it difficult for tenants to acquire land.

How did Magsaysay's popularity affect his presidency?

It allowed him to make administrative changes and strengthen the central state.

What was a consequence of Magsaysay's strong executive power?

It triggered a legislative backlash.

What was a feature of Magsaysay's populism?

It established a direct link with the people.

Who benefited from the post-war growth in the Philippines?

Those who were already wealthy

What was the role of the Central Bank in Cuaderno's time?

Imposing fiscal discipline on the government

What was a characteristic of those who received licenses for growth?

They were close to the government

What was the situation of the poor during the post-war period?

They remained poor and lacked the organization to mobilize

What was a major issue during Garcia's term?

Corruption and cronyism

What was the situation of the middle class during the post-war period?

They remained stable but did not grow

What was the main reason behind Macapagal's dismissal of Diokno?

Diokno's investigation was leading to corruption allegations against Macapagal

What was the characteristic of post-war democracy in the Philippines?

It was a system where people fought with each other and not for ideas

What was the result of Macapagal's administration at the end of his term?

He was known more for the corruption permeating his administration

What was the nature of the growth introduced by the government in the economy?

It was not inclusive and did not benefit all sectors

What was the role of biopics in Macapagal's administration?

They were used as propaganda and for campaign

What was the challenge faced by the system in the Philippines?

It was hard to get something passed without the approval of the landlords

What was the main criticism of the post-war economic agreements between the Philippines and the US?

They were lopsided in favor of the US

What was the impact of corruption and cronyism on the Filipino people's perception of the government?

It resulted in public cynicism

What was the focus of post-war democracy in the Philippines?

Building local bases in the local setting

What was the consequence of the growing influence of powerful families and landed elites?

It perpetuated corruption and cronyism

What was the manifestation of cultural neo-colonialism in the Philippines?

The adoption of American culture and values

What was the result of the revival of patronage politics in the post-war period?

It perpetuated corruption and cronyism

What was the main way Marcos enriched himself after taking control of the granting of permits?

By charging $5,000 from every businessman who wanted to secure a permit

What was the purpose of the book 'For Every Tear a Victory'?

To promote Marcos' vision for the Philippines and his biography

What was the general sentiment of Filipinos towards the Americans?

They were grateful for the American liberation and education

What was Marcos' strategy to differentiate himself from other senators?

To associate himself with a beauty queen

What did Marcos do after winning the presidency in 1965?

He took control of Congress and used public sentiment to his advantage

What was the significance of the book 'For Every Tear a Victory' in the context of publishing history?

It was a vanity publishing venture

What issue plagued the rice industry during 1968-1969?

Corruption

What was a characteristic of Marcos' first term in office?

Massive fraud and vote-buying

What was a consequence of the economic growth during Marcos' first term?

Debt crisis

What was a growing trend in Manila campuses during this period?

Student protests

What was the Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas (PKP) involved in during this period?

Organizing for parliamentary struggle

What was the outcome of increased government involvement in agriculture?

Overpriced rice in times of shortage

What was the nature of the protests during the First Quarter Storm?

Violent and intense

What was the purpose of the media outlets opened by the Lopez and Laurel families?

To expose Marcos' corruption

What happened to Edgar Jopson in 1982?

He was shot

What was the result of the escalating political battles outside the state?

Escalating institutional combat within Congress

What was the target of the protests led by students?

The president and the first lady

What was the main consequence of the 'Green Revolution' on rice farmers?

They became indebted and landless.

What was the primary goal of Jose Maria Sison's Communist Party of the Philippines?

To recruit students and organize labor unions.

Who benefited the most from the 'Green Revolution'?

Rural elites and multinational corporations.

Why did the older generation of Huk rebels resist the recruitment of students?

They wanted to maintain control over the movement.

What was the long-term consequence of the developmental projects in the Philippines?

The country was unable to pay its foreign debt.

What characterized Marcos's first term as president?

Self-serving corruption and cronyism.

What was the purpose of the constitutional convention authorized by Congress?

To update the 1935 Commonwealth Constitution

What was the event that served as a rationale for declaring Martial Law in 1972?

Enrile's staged ambush

What was the public's perception of the declaration of Martial Law in 1972?

They accepted it due to the country's terrible security situation

What did Enrile admit to doing in 1986?

Staging an ambush to declare Martial Law

What did Marcos claim was happening to him in 1972?

All his enemies were working together to oust him

What did Enrile do in 2018?

He retracted his statement about staging an ambush

What was Marcos doing to the Congress?

Making them useless by taking away their power

What was happening in the Southern Philippines during Marcos' rule?

A brutal engagement began with the MNLF

Who funded the AFP during Marcos' rule?

The Americans and technocrats

What was the allocation of the national budget to the AFP during Marcos' rule?

It increased from 880 million to 4 billion pesos

What was the role of AFP officers in the latter years of Marcos' rule?

They were assigned to civilian agencies

What was Ferdinand Marcos' strategy to gain control of both public and private corporations?

By promoting crony capitalism and using his friends and relatives to manage corporations

What was the outcome for opponents of Marcos' regime?

They were jailed, tortured, or killed

What was the context in which Marcos declared martial law?

After almost three years of political conflict

What was the term used by Marcos to describe his declaration of martial law?

Democratic revolution

What was the consequence of Marcos' control over the media?

The media was shut down, and then reopened under Marcos' control

What was the significance of the 1973 Constitution, Article XVII?

It established Marcos as a dictator

What was the original intention of Philex when it was established?

To take control of the export of sugar for local hacienderos

What happened to the price of sugar when Philex hoarded it?

It went down

What was the consequence of Philex's business crisis?

The establishment of the Philippine Sugar Commission (Philsucom)

What was the role of Nasutra?

To fix the problem created by Philex

Why did Nasutra wait for exchange rates to be in their favor before paying hacienderos?

To reduce the payment to hacienderos

What was the role of Roberto Benedicto in the sugar industry?

He controlled the media outlets to mask the scandal

What was the purpose of Marcos allowing opposition leaders to win in some cities and provinces?

To create the illusion of democracy and give Filipinos a choice

What was the main problem with Marcos' land reform program?

Landlords found ways to work around the program, and tenants ended up with punishing terms

What was the economic impact of Marcos' reliance on export crops?

The PH economy reached a high point in the mid-1970s

What was a characteristic of Marcos' construction projects?

They were criticized for being 'over-designed' by Asian and developing country standards

What was the situation of the sugar industry during Marcos' dictatorship?

It faced a crisis

How was public spending funded during Marcos' regime?

Through public debt

What was the outcome for the sugar workers when the sugar monopoly was ended in 1984?

They were used as a bargaining chip by the government

What was the primary consequence of the end of the sugar monopoly for the hacienderos?

They were forced to sign long-term contracts with Nasutra

What was a characteristic of the industries that were prevalent in the Philippines during Marcos' rule?

They were all dominated by cronies and friends of Marcos

What was the outcome of the Escalante Massacre in 1985?

27 workers were killed and over two dozen were wounded

What was Marcos' primary achievement in 15 years of power?

He helped his friends and relatives build giant conglomerates

What was the role of the government in the treatment of sugar workers?

The government allowed the hacienderos to compromise on labor rights

What was a major factor that hindered a unified resistance movement against Marcos?

Corruption and cronyism in the government

What motivated Muslim students to join the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF)?

Their education in Egypt and Libya

What was the outcome of the rebellion in Southern Mindanao?

The rebellion was suppressed by Marcos' militarization

What was a consequence of the displacement and migration to Mindanao?

An increase in land ownership conflicts

Why did some Moro leaders not agree to the proposal?

They were not united in their goals

What was the goal of the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF)?

To create an independent Bangsa Moro Republik

What was the main reason behind the protest against the Chico Dam project?

The dam would displace thousands of families and submerge rice fields

What was the response of the government to the villagers' protests against the Chico Dam?

The government threatened the villagers and offered them bribes

Who led the resistance against the construction of the Chico Dam?

Macli-ing Dulag

What was the significance of the Chico Dam project to the government?

It was a development project that would bring progress to the region

What was the attitude of the government towards the villagers who opposed the Chico Dam?

The government was arrogant and dismissive of their concerns

What did the villagers mean by saying 'you are owned by the land'?

The land is a responsibility to be taken care of

What was the result of 'fascist rule' under Marcos' regime?

The growth of the Communist Party of the Philippines in membership

What was the role of the Church during the Marcos regime?

It held a policy of critical collaboration with the government

What was the purpose of the aboveground organizations in the cities?

To consolidate support from schools and labor unions

Why did Marcos find it critical to silence his political opponents?

Because they had the capacity to put the human rights abuses in the international arena

What was the result of the growing resistance by the Communist Party of the Philippines and the Moro National Liberation Front?

The encouragement of more groups to resist the Marcos regime

What was the role of Archimedes Trajano?

A student who questioned Imee Marcos' position as SK chair

What was the main objective of the peace pacts among the tribes in Kalinga and Bontok?

To protest the construction of the Chico Dam project

What was the outcome of the World Bank's review of the Chico Dam project?

The World Bank withdrew its funding and revised its policies on projects affecting IPs

What happened to Macli-ing Dulag in 1980?

He was gunned down by military troops

What was the outcome of the trial of Macli-ing Dulag's killers?

An army lieutenant and a sergeant were found guilty of murder and frustrated murder

What was the impact of the resistance of the Kalinga and Bontok tribes on the Marcos government?

The Marcos government became more militarized

What was the significance of the resistance of the Cordillera leaders?

It proved that the IPs could work together to achieve their goals

What was the reason for the politicians' call for a 'restoration of democracy' in the late 1970s?

Because they were not benefiting from the regime as they used to

What was a consequence of the growing resistance against Marcos?

The US withdrew part of its military aid due to human rights abuses

What was Marcos' strategy to stop the opposition from uniting?

By presenting the communists as the real problem

Why were the AFP there for economic reasons?

Because they were not necessarily following the ideals of Marcos, but were there for economic reasons

What was the result of the resistance and response to Marcos?

Resistance and response to Marcos was growing

What was the consequence of the human rights abuses and EJKs?

Rallying for human rights attracted more moderate groups against Marcos

What was a significant factor that contributed to Cory Aquino's victory in the elections?

The backing of the Catholic Church and moderate oppositionists

What was the response of the CPP to the elections?

They boycotted the elections

What was the outcome of the election despite the limitations and cheating?

Marcos was declared the winner by the Comelec

What was the role of the people in protecting the election results?

They protected the ballots and were vigilant in the counting process

What was the event that sparked widespread outrage and led to the Walk-Out?

The announcement of Marcos as the winner

What was the main reason why Ninoy Aquino decided to return to the Philippines despite death threats?

He was a champion of democracy and wanted to unite the opposition against Marcos.

What was the main challenge facing the opposition against Marcos?

Unifying the different groups with different ideologies.

What was the consequence of Marcos' debt-driven development projects?

The country was unable to pay off the debt.

What was the role of the CPP in the opposition against Marcos?

They believed that armed resistance was the only way to overthrow Marcos.

What was the significance of Ninoy Aquino's role in the opposition against Marcos?

He was a strong advocate for democracy and united the opposition against Marcos.

What was the root cause of the human rights abuses and subversion during Marcos' regime?

Economic, social, and political causes.

What was the impact of Ninoy's assassination on the economic elites?

They began to realize their vulnerability to human rights abuses.

How did the Catholic Church respond to the dictatorship?

They expressed their opposition to the dictatorship.

What was the result of the 1984 elections?

The people lost faith in the electoral process and became disillusioned.

What was the response of the urban middle class to Ninoy's assassination?

They became more politically involved and active.

What was the role of the CPP during this period?

They allowed for tactical coalitions with anti-Marcos elites and social democrats.

What was Ninoy's populism characterized by?

He gathered strong mass support from the people.

What was the focus of President Corazon C. Aquino's proclamation on February 25, 1986?

Upholding truth and justice, morality and decency in government

What was a key characteristic of the People Power Revolution?

It was participated in by various groups from various parts of the country

What is a common experience of revolutions?

A period of stagnation and reversal

What is a challenge in achieving democracy?

It takes time and effort

Why did some groups join the People Power Revolution?

To protect their careers

What is a key aspect of unification?

It takes time and effort

What was the name of the radio station where Reuter went?

DZRJ

What were the civilians bringing to the military in EDSA?

Roses and prayers

What was the significance of the nuns' presence at the radio station?

They were stopping the military from attacking

What did the people expect from Corazon Aquino as the new President?

A reorganization of the government

What was the consequence of the combined efforts of the people and the military?

The breaking point of Marcos' power

What was Corazon Aquino's promise to the people?

Restoration of democracy and justice

What is the primary way society remembers events?

Through social memory taught by institutions

What was a major factor that led to the success of the EDSA revolution?

The call to popular support from the Catholic Church and civil society

What was the nature of the coalition government formed after EDSA?

A wide coalition including both political left and right

What is an example of how history can be manipulated to be remembered in a particular way?

The exclusion of the Talanos' gold bars from Marcos' biography

What was the primary motivation behind the EDSA revolution?

To bring down autocracy and establish democracy

What is the significance of social memory in shaping our understanding of history?

It can lead to tragic mistakes and consequences if not careful

What was a major challenge faced by the EDSA revolution?

Setting realistic objectives and planning strategically

What is a common misconception about EDSA?

That it led to immediate and significant reforms

What is a value that was fought for during EDSA but is currently being rejected?

Human rights

What was the outcome of the EDSA revolution in terms of its objectives?

It had no clear objectives

What is a characteristic of the way people remember and forget historical events?

It is influenced by the values we cherish

What was Cory's achievement in terms of international respect?

She received overwhelming international respect and support

What is a question that is being challenged in the context of EDSA?

Did we really succeed in EDSA?

What was one of the challenges Cory faced during her presidency?

She was politically inexperienced and had to work against the legacy of Marcos

What is a common habit of Filipinos when dealing with painful moments in history?

Praising the people who have hurt us

What was a consequence of the events in 1990 and 1991 on the economy?

The economy suffered

What was the purpose of the Presidential Commission on Good Government?

To restore democratic institutions

Why is it hard to talk about the martial law in the Philippines?

Because the Marcoses are back and the dictator has been buried a hero

What is the significance of the slow grind of justice and recovery of hidden wealth?

Much has been recovered, but much still needs to be recovered

What was a problem that hindered Cory's effectiveness?

All of the above

What was one of Cory's achievements?

She restored democratic institutions

What is the outcome of not being critical of historical claims on social media?

Inaccurate information is spread

Why does the appeal of populism rise despite the failures of the current government?

Because the traditional politics does not work

What is a consequence of the forks in memory?

The memory of EDSA is downplayed

What is the main idea of the text regarding the EDSA revolution?

It was a change that brought down a dictatorship and brought back a democracy

What is the author's main concern about the memorialization of Martial Law?

It is not appreciated for what it was, but for what it was not

What does the author mean by 'not resiliency, but recognition of the problem'?

We should acknowledge the problems that need to be solved

What is the author's message about reclaiming our narrative?

We should remember our history and claim our future

What is the author's attitude towards the phrase 'bahala na'?

It is a way of escaping responsibility

What is the author's main message about the People Power Revolution?

It was a spontaneous movement that brought down a dictatorship and brought back a democracy

Study Notes

The Hukbalahap Rebellion

  • The Hukbalahap, a peasant-based organization, held the line of defense against the Japanese and wanted to work with the Americans to liberate the Philippines
  • Despite their shared fight against the Japanese, the Americans were hostile towards the Huks
  • The Americans treated the Huks and USAFFE guerrilla differently, with the Huks being seen as a threat to American influence in the country
  • The Americans tricked the Huks into surrendering their arms, promising to replace them with newer models, but instead, the Huk guerrillas were massacred
  • 109 Huk guerrillas were killed in the Malolos Massacre of February 19, 1945

The Hukbalahap Rebellion Continues

  • Prominent guerrilla leaders, including Luis Taruc, Casto Alejandrini, and 14 others, were arrested in early 1945
  • The Hukbalahap surrendered in September 1945, with Luis Taruc giving a roster of Huk soldiers to President Osmena
  • The conditions for the surrender included recognition of the Huks as war veterans and driving Japanese collaborators out of government

Post-War Conditions

  • The post-war period saw the rise of social unrest, with peasants demanding better treatment and justice from the landlords
  • The Hukbalahap Rebellion continued, with the Huks organizing peasants to stand up against the landlords
  • The landlords, with the help of the government, used private armies and civilian guards to suppress the Huk movement

The Democratic Alliance

  • The Democratic Alliance was formed to promote the interests of peasants and workers
  • The Alliance advocated for better relations with landowners, low-interest loans, and stronger implementation of existing laws to protect peasants
  • The Alliance also called for recognition of the Huks as war veterans and driving Japanese collaborators out of government

The Failure of the Huk Rebellion

  • Peasant support for the Huk rebellion eventually waned due to pragmatic economic interests

  • The Armed Forces of the Philippines, with American support, grew stronger and more popular, leading to the decline of the Huk movement

  • By 1954, the Huk rebellion had largely ended, with Luis Taruc surrendering to President Quirino and reopening negotiations.### Prelude to Martial Law

  • A constitutional convention was authorized to update the 1935 Commonwealth Constitution, with directly elected delegates including activists who sought to reshape the exercise of power.

  • Anti-Marcos delegates planned to prevent him or any immediate family member from seeking another term.

  • The Plaza Miranda bombing in 1971 was a precursor to the declaration of martial law.

  • In 1972, Enrile claimed to have been ambushed, which became the rationale for declaring martial law, but later admitted to staging the ambush.

Declaration of Martial Law

  • Martial law was declared on September 23, 1972, with Marcos claiming that all his enemies were working together to oust him.
  • The public accepted the measure due to the perceived poor security situation in the country.
  • The AFP detained Marcos' political enemies, and the military budget increased from 880 million to 4 billion pesos.

The New Society

  • The AFP launched major attacks against the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) and the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP-NPA).
  • Officers were assigned to civilian agencies, and the military received the largest allocation of the national budget.
  • The Americans and technocrats indirectly supported the dictatorship by funding the AFP.

End of the Sugar Monopoly

  • Marcos formally ended the sugar monopoly on March 15, 1984, but hacienderos were forced to sign long-term contracts with Nasutra due to lack of international trade connections.
  • The sugar workers were the most affected, being used as a bargaining chip between the government and hacienderos.

Dictatorship, Corruption, and Cronyism

  • The government controlled and manipulated the economy, favoring cronies and relatives.
  • Cronyism was prevalent in various industries, including coconut, sugar, banana, tobacco, banking, and finance.
  • Marcos' principal economic achievement was helping his friends and relatives build giant conglomerates.

Opposition and Resistance

  • Opponents, including Diokno, Aquino, and student activists, were jailed, tortured, or killed.
  • The media was shut down or controlled by Marcos' friends and relatives.
  • There was a lack of unity among the opposition, with different groups having different goals and methods.

Economic Impact

  • Land reform implemented by Marcos was ineffective, and the economy was unsustainable due to reliance on export crops.
  • Public spending was funded by public debt, and construction projects were often unprofitable and criticized for being "over-designed".

Resistance to the Marcos Dictatorship

  • The Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) formed to create the Bangsa Moro Republik (Moro National Republic) and received international support.
  • The Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) grew in membership, and Marcos responded by increasing the military budget.
  • Resistance groups, including non-communist politicians and the Church, opposed the regime, but were not united in their goals and methods.

Conclusion

  • The people were not united in their purpose, and Marcos was able to present the communists as the real problem.
  • The withdrawal of US military aid and public support for Cory Aquino's presidential campaign led to the eventual downfall of Marcos' regime.### Revolution and Return to Democracy
  • The Assassination of Benigno Aquino, Jr. on August 21, 1983, marked a turning point in the opposition to Marcos' regime, as even his cronies began to question their support for him.
  • The urban middle class and economic elites became more politically involved, realizing that they were not immune to human rights abuses and that their interests aligned with Ninoy's.
  • The elite opposition and social democrats reunited to challenge Marcos at the local and parliamentary levels in the 1984 elections, which were widely seen as manipulated.

The People Power Revolution

  • The EDSA People Power Revolution began on February 25, 1986, with a failed military coup that led to a call for popular support from civil society and the Catholic Church.
  • A wide coalition of groups, including the political left and right, participated in the revolution, which was marked by spontaneity and a lack of clear objectives.
  • The revolution was able to bring down Marcos' dictatorship, but the aftermath was marked by instability and the difficulty of rebuilding democratic institutions.

Corazon Aquino and the Promise of Democracy

  • Corazon Aquino, as the 1st President of the 5th Republic, promised to restore democracy, justice, and morality in government.
  • She called for the resignation of all officials under Marcos' administration and the reorganization of government.
  • The Presidential Commission on Good Government and the Commission of Human Rights were established to promote reform and accountability.

The Legacy of EDSA

  • The People Power Revolution was a culmination of decades of resistance to Marcos' regime, and its success was marked by a mix of euphoria and uncertainty.
  • The revolution's legacy is complex and contested, with some viewing it as a triumph of democracy and others seeing it as a failed opportunity for reform.
  • The aftermath of EDSA was marked by the return of traditional politicians, failed coup attempts, and economic struggles, which hindered the realization of its promises.

Memorialization of Martial Law

  • The way institutions teach history can shape social memory and influence the way we remember and forget events.
  • The memorialization of Martial Law is problematic, as it is often marked by selective remembering and a failure to critically examine historical claims.
  • The fact that the Marcoses were able to return to power and that the dictator was buried a hero speaks to the ongoing struggle to come to terms with the past.

Challenges and Opportunities

  • The Philippines faces ongoing challenges, including the need for accountability, the restoration of democratic institutions, and the promotion of social justice.
  • The country must also come to terms with its history, including the legacy of Martial Law and the promises of EDSA.
  • The empowerment of the people and the reclaiming of the narrative are crucial for building a better future.

Post-War Rehabilitation

  • The passage of the Jones Law in 1916 formalized the US promise of Philippine independence, which was eventually achieved on July 4, 1946.
  • The post-war rehabilitation period was marked by challenges, including the need to rebuild Manila, address inflation, and promote economic development.
  • The Rehabilitation Act and the Bell Trade Act were passed to provide aid and promote trade, but they ultimately benefited elite Filipinos and American interests.

The Third Republic

  • The Third Republic was marked by the presidency of Manuel Roxas, who was elected in 1946 despite controversies surrounding the election.
  • Roxas faced challenges, including the need to rebuild the economy, address social unrest, and promote national sovereignty.
  • The country's continued ties with the US, including the maintenance of military bases and the influence of American interests, shaped the nation's development during this period.

Test your knowledge about the post-war rehabilitation period in the Philippines and the presidents who led the nation during that time. Learn about the challenges they faced and the impact of their decisions on the country's development.

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