Political Philosophy and International Relations

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By ChivalrousAbundance



40 Questions

Which basic liberal assumption emphasizes transnational non-governmental ties between societies?

According to interdependence liberals, what is of particular importance in international relations?

Which liberal tradition emphasizes the importance of organized cooperation between states?

According to republican liberals, what is vital for inducing peaceful and cooperative relations between states?

What is the principal reason why force is less beneficial for states and trade increasingly so?

Who developed a neofunctionalist theory of international integration inspired by the cooperation between Western European countries?

In what areas did David Mitrany propose technical and economic collaboration to expand?

Which countries are considered as 'trading states' due to their economic success?

Who argued that greater interdependence in the form of transnational ties between countries could lead to peace?

According to Richard Rosecrance, why have highly industrialized countries refrained from the traditional military–political option?

What did Phil Cerny argue about the transformation of the state?

What does interdependence mean according to the text?

What does Ernst Haas' neofunctionalist theory of international integration emphasize?

What are the keys to success in today's world?

What did Richard Rosecrance argue about modern states' preference for economic openness?

What is the basis of the liberal tradition in IR?

What did modernization, including the Industrial Revolution, unleash according to the text?

What is the aim of the political and economic system of the modern liberal state?

What do liberals generally believe about human nature?

What do liberal disagreements revolve around according to the text?

What does modernization increase according to the text?

What happened to liberal optimism after WWII?

What are current challenges to liberal ideas about progress and cooperation according to the text?

What does liberalism focus on according to the text?

According to liberalism in International Relations, what is the role of the state?

What did Immanuel Kant propose for achieving 'perpetual peace' among states?

Which strand of liberalism focuses on transnational relations and rejects the realist view of IR as the study of relations between governments?

According to Karl Deutsch, what leads to a security community where conflicts can be resolved without resorting to large-scale physical force?

What does the 'cobweb model' proposed by sociological liberals aim to demonstrate?

What was one of the main divisions of liberalism after World War II that focuses on the interdependence among states?

According to sociological liberalism, what is the impact of individuals on global politics?

What characterizes the 'multicentric world' according to sociological liberalism?

What does the 'More revolution' refer to according to sociological liberalism?

What does the 'Mobility revolution' enable individuals to do according to sociological liberalism?

What is challenged by sociological liberalism in terms of traditional focus in International Relations (IR)?

'Mentality revolution' reflects the growing aspirations of which group according to sociological liberalism?

What does sociological liberalism argue about the future due to increasing pluralism and interconnectedness?

What is challenging the traditional macro-structures of power according to sociological liberalism?

What is being challenged by sociological liberalism regarding the transformation of the state?

What do sociological liberals emphasize regarding relations between people in a global context?


  • Liberalism is a perspective in International Relations (IR) that sees the state as a constitutional entity that respects the rights of citizens and enforces the rule of law.

  • Liberals believe that progress and modernization bring about cooperation across international boundaries.

  • Immanuel Kant, an eighteenth-century German philosopher, argued for the existence of a world of constitutional and mutually respectful states, which he called "republics," leading to "perpetual peace."

  • After World War II, liberalism was divided into four main strands: sociological liberalism, interdependence liberalism, institutional liberalism, and republican liberalism.

  • Sociological liberalism rejects the realist view of IR as the study of relations between governments of sovereign states.

  • Sociological liberals focus on transnational relations, or relations between people, groups, and organizations belonging to different countries.

  • Transnational relations are considered important for achieving peaceful relations and the formation of security communities.

  • Karl Deutsch, a leading figure in the study of transnational relations in the 1950s, argued that a high degree of transnational ties leads to a security community, where conflicts and problems can be resolved without resort to large-scale physical force.

  • Sociological liberals propose a "cobweb model" of transnational relationships to demonstrate that a nation-state consists of many different groups of people with various types of external ties and interests.

  • The cobweb model represents a more accurate picture of the world because it represents actual patterns of human behavior rather than artificial boundaries of states.

  • Sociological liberalism is a perspective in International Relations (IR) that emphasizes the importance of individuals, groups, and private relations in a global context.

  • Individuals have become significant players in global politics due to various reasons: erosion and dispersion of state power, advances in education and communication, increased awareness of interdependence issues, and the revolution of information technologies.

  • Sociological liberals argue that the increasing pluralism and interconnectedness of the world, characterized by transnational networks, will lead to a more peaceful world, although it may also be more unstable due to the breakdown of the old state-centric order.

  • Individuals have extended their activities through better education, access to communication, and travel, leading to a decrease in states' capacity for control and regulation.

  • A new 'multicentric world' has emerged, composed of diverse sovereignty-free collectivities, which exist apart from and in competition with the state-centric world.

  • Micropowers, such as insurgents, activists, and charismatic individuals, are challenging the traditional macro-structures of power.

  • The 'More revolution' refers to the increase in the number of people living longer and healthier lives, making them harder to regiment and control.

  • The 'Mobility revolution' is the ability of people to move around and communicate globally, making it easier for them to switch loyalties.

  • The 'Mentality revolution' reflects the growing aspirations of the middle classes, who are shaking off traditional values and questioning authority.

  • Sociological liberalism challenges the conventional focus on relations between national governments and instead highlights the cooperative nature of overlapping interdependent relations between people.

  • The transformation of the state and the distinction between domestic and international are being challenged, leading to uncertainty about the future.


Test your knowledge of political philosophy and international relations with this quiz. Explore concepts related to realist and liberal views of the state, the rule of law, and international norms.

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