Phytochemistry Quiz

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59 Questions

Which type of compound has a sugar unit attached to a phenolic compound?

Phenolic glycosides

What is the role of the added sugar unit in phenolic glycosides?

To enhance biological activity

Which type of solution will extract fat-soluble constituents like alkaloids?

Alcohol-based solutions

What influences the solubility of phytochemicals?

Temperature of the extraction solvents

Which compound has varying affinities for different solvents?

Alkaloids

What will water-based solutions extract?

Polysaccharides and tannins

Which factor affects the ionization of a solution?

Type of solvent used

What is the purpose of flavonoids in a plant?

Protection from UV radiation

Which major class includes compounds such as alkamides and fatty acids?

Lipids

What do glycosides consist of?

A glycogen (sugar unit) and an aglycone (any other compound) attached by a glycosidic bond

Which major class includes compounds like salicylic acid, coumarins, and tannins?

Phenolics

What is the primary function of terpenoids in plants?

Providing a source of volatile oils

What are alkaloids primarily known for in plants?

Having pharmacological effects

What distinguishes glycosides from other compounds?

Consisting of two different molecules attached via a glycosidic bond

Which type of herbal constituent is generally not very soluble in water and more so in alcohol?

Tannins

What type of herbal constituent is a polysaccharide that absorbs water and may form a sludge in alcohol?

Mucilage

Which herbal constituent is insoluble in water and is readily soluble in alcohol?

Resins

What type of herbal constituent is partially soluble in both water and alcohol?

Saponins

Which type of herbal constituent volatizes in hot water, 40% alcohol, or oil?

Volatile Oils

What type of herbal constituent is soluble in alcohol and fixed oils, and slightly soluble in water?

Volatile Oils

Which type of herbal constituent varies in solubility depending on their glycoside?

Flavonoids

Which type of plant metabolites are fundamental to the life of the plant?

Primary metabolites

What is the approximate number of discovered secondary plant metabolites?

200,000

What is the primary difference between primary and secondary plant metabolites?

Primary metabolites are fundamental to the life of a plant, while secondary metabolites serve diverse functions within plants.

What is the main characteristic of herbal constituents?

They have distinct medicinal properties

What is the purpose of a herbal monograph?

To provide reliable herbal information

Why are herbal constituents classified based on their solubility?

To predict their medicinal applications

What is the primary function of flavonoids in plants?

Protect the plant from UV radiation

Which major class of constituents includes compounds like alkamides and fatty acids?

Lipids

What distinguishes glycosides from other compounds?

Attachment via glycosidic bond

What is the primary function of terpenoids in plants?

Production of volatile oils

Which type of herbal constituent is insoluble in water and is readily soluble in alcohol?

Alkaloids

What does the glycone unit in glycosides refer to?

Sugar unit

Which type of herbal constituent is known for its varying affinities for different solvents?

Alkaloids

Which type of herbal constituent is insoluble in water and more soluble in alcohol?

Flavonoids

What type of herbal constituent is a polysaccharide that absorbs water and may form a sludge in alcohol?

Mucilage

Which herbal constituent is partially soluble in both water and alcohol?

Saponins

What type of compound volatizes in hot water, 40% alcohol, or oil?

Volatile Oils

Which herbal constituent is readily soluble in water or alcohol?

Salicylates

In which solvents are resins generally insoluble?

Oil

Which herbal constituent varies in solubility depending on its glycoside?

Flavonoids

Which type of plant metabolites do not appear to be fundamental to sustain life but serve diverse functions within plants?

Secondary metabolites

How many secondary plant metabolites are estimated to still be uncovered by science?

80,000-90,000

What book provides information on how plants work and the amazing things they do?

How Plants Work: The Science behind the Amazing Things Plants Do

Which type of herbal constituents are referred to as plant constituents in herbalism?

Secondary metabolites

Which category of plant metabolites includes proteins, lipids, carbs, and chlorophyll?

Primary metabolites

What is the approximate number of secondary plant metabolites that have been discovered?

~200,000

Which class of chemicals are secondary metabolites that are fundamental to the life of the plant?

Primary metabolites

What is the primary function of the sugar unit in phenolic glycosides?

To activate the aglycone unit

Which solvent is most suitable for extracting alkaloids?

45-60% alcohol

What factor does NOT influence constituent solubility?

Molecular size of the plant extract

Which type of constituents are extracted by water-based solutions?

Mucilage and tannins

How does the polarity of a phytochemical molecule affect its solubility?

Makes it more water soluble

What is the role of gut flora in relation to aglycone units?

Break down and activate the aglycone unit

What is the significance of the added sugar unit in phenolic glycosides?

To improve water solubility

Salicylic acid, coumarins, flavonoids, isoflavones, lignans, quinones, tannins are examples of?

Phenolics

Inulin, arabinogalactans, beta-glucans, gum, mucilage are examples of?

Carbohydrates

Volatile oils, resins, saponins, phytosterols, carotenoids, cardiac glycosides, iridoids

Terpenoids

Isoquinoline and pyrrolizidine are examples of?

Alkaloids

Test your knowledge of phytochemistry with this quiz covering primary and secondary plant metabolites, herbal constituents, herbal actions, herbs with tissue affinities, and accessing reliable herbal information. This quiz is based on the learning objectives of Dr. Fiona Smulders' class 3A on phytochemistry.

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