4. Phylogeny of Play: Evolutionary History and Classification of Living Things

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What is the term used to describe characters that are useful for identifying genealogies?

Synapomorphy

In cladistics, what is an autapomorphy?

Uniquely - Derived - Character

Why did Carolus Linnaeus cluster plants based on similarity?

Due to the assumption that all living things were created in their present form

Why do related organisms may not be the most similar to one another according to cladistic analysis?

Due to homoplasy

What helps identify shared ancestral and shared derived characters in cladistic analysis?

Outgroup

What is the purpose of determining character states and establishing a cladogram in cladistic analysis?

To determine the evolutionary relationships between species.

Why may more playful species not necessarily engage in all types of play?

Because different types of play may not co-vary.

In phylogenetic systematics, what is correlated in Independent Contrasts analysis?

The nodes of transition of one trait with those of another trait.

What is the main purpose of Character Mapping in cladistic analysis?

To track the evolution of a specific character across species.

What conclusion can be drawn from the variability within one category of play, such as sex play versus aggressive play?

Variability in play behavior can exist even within a single category like social play.

What is the main implication of the phylogeny discussed in the text?

Different types of play have evolved independently.

What do lessons from phylogeny suggest about the complexity of play within lineages?

Play complexity within lineages may increase or be eliminated.

What is the significance of mapping character states on a cladogram in cladistics?

It helps determine the ancestral state of a character.

In terms of social play, how does complexity vary even within one type according to the text?

Complexity can vary even within one type of social play.

Based on the text, what does the development question 'Are their general patterns or are patterns of how play unfolds unique to different parts of the animal tree?' aim to address?

Identifying general versus unique patterns in how play evolves across different lineages.

Explore the importance of phylogeny in understanding the evolutionary history of living things and how Carolus Linnaeus classified plants based on similarity. Learn about the concept of similarity in clustering species and the hierarchical structure it creates.

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