Particle Size Reduction (PSR) Process chapter 2 صناعيةQuiz

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What is the primary purpose of Particle Size Reduction (PSR)?

How can Particle Size Distribution (PSD) impact drug product performance?

How can PSDs of both drug substance and excipients affect drug product manufacturability?

Particle Size Distribution (PSDs) can affect impact safety, efficacy and quality of the drug product

PSDs of pharmaceutical powders can influence granulation, milling, coating, drying, mixing/premixing, encapsulation processes and compression

Particle Sizes of pharmaceutical powders should be evaluated at different pharmaceutical development phases for each specific drug application.

The target PSDs of pharmaceutical powders can be selected after determining the particle size effects in the final development phase.

Establishing appropriate particle size specifications helps in controlling drug product quality and ensuring manufacturing consistency.

What can be done once the particle size effects have been determined in the final development phase?

What is the purpose of establishing appropriate particle size specifications?

What is the primary purpose of size reduction in pharmaceutical manufacturing?

How does the range of mechanical properties of solid particles influence size reduction mechanisms?

Why does the range of mechanical properties of solid particles influence the design of commercial equipment?

What does the method of size reduction affect?

Why does the correct choice of efficient commercial size reduction machinery depend on knowledge of particle size properties and mechanisms?

Which factor determines the required size of a drug for a dry powder inhalation formulation?

What influences the design of commercial size separation methodologies and apparatus?

Which method is NOT Correct as a commercial size separation methodology ?

What is the primary purpose of pharmaceutical particle technology?

What does pharmaceutical particle technology aim to produce?

What are the primary targets of pharmaceutical particle technology?

What is a limitation of vivo bioavailability of pharmaceutical particle technology?

What is the primary advantage of newer novel particle techniques over conventional methods?

What is the main purpose of size reduction in pharmaceutical manufacturing?

What is the primary purpose of size reduction in pharmaceutical manufacturing?

What is a limitation of conventional particle technologies ?

What is the main advantage of newer novel particle techniques over conventional methods?

When is a particle size specification needed ?

Conventional methods of size reduction can sometimes lead to thermal and chemical degradation of drugs

Newer novel particle techniques are less efficient than conventional methods for formulating poorly soluble drugs

Particle size specification is required if the particle size of the drug substance is critical to drug product performance

If the drug product is not a low dose drug and the drug substance is highly soluble, the particle size specification may NOT be established with little or no scientific justification

Granulation and coating are related to particle size enlargement, while milling and grinding are related to particle size reduction

Mixing and blending are related to combination of particles of different components where size differences among these components have a large impact on blend homogeneity

Screening and sieving are related to separation of particles with different sizes

What are granulation and coating related to in pharmaceutical particle technology?

What are screening and sieving related to in pharmaceutical particle technology?

What are mixing and blending related to in pharmaceutical particle technology?

Particle size specification is only required for the drug substance and not for excipients or in-process materials.

Particle size of pharmaceutical materials can range from nanometer to centimeter.

Mixing and blending in pharmaceutical particle technology are not affected by the size differences among the components.

Size reduction increases the solubility and dissolution rate of pharmaceutical materials, enhancing bioavailability.

Griseofulvin, an antifungal drug, shows around five times better absorption in its micronized form.

The absorptive power of charcoal and kaolin increases after size reduction due to the increase in surface area.

What is the impact of size reduction on pharmaceutical formulation?

Which substance shows around five times better absorption in its micronized form after size reduction?

What happens to the absorptive power of charcoal and kaolin after size reduction?

What is the primary purpose of controlling particle size distribution in pharmaceutical suspensions?

How does controlling particle size distribution impact the flowability of materials in a tablet machine?

What is the purpose of controlling particle size distribution in dry granulation or dry mix in pharmaceutical manufacturing?

Particle size for pharmaceutical capsules, insufflations, suppositories, and ointments must be below 10mm.

Lack of grittiness of solid particles is a concern for dermal ointments, creams, and ophthalmic preparations.

Fine powders have a particle size of 50 to 100 µm.

Particle Size Reduction can lead to a decrease in bulk density causing flowability issues.

Particle Size Reduction can lead to an increase in dissolution rate.

Particle Size Reduction can lead to a decrease in static charge problems.

Which of the following correct is a potential disadvantage of Particle Size Reduction (PSR) in pharmaceutical manufacturing?

How does a decrease in bulk density due to Particle Size Reduction (PSR) impact material flowability?

What problem may arise from a decrease in particle size due to Particle Size Reduction (PSR) in pharmaceutical manufacturing?

Which type of materials are most difficult to comminute?

What type of mill is suitable for size reduction of fibrous materials?

What should be done before milling plastic materials like synthetic gums and resins?

Hard materials like pumice and iodine are easy to comminute due to their soft nature.

Fibrous materials like glycyrrhiza and rauwolfia can be size reduced by pressure.

Plastic materials like synthetic gums, waxes, and resins should be chilled before milling.

Hygroscopic materials must be comminuted inside a closed equipment like a ball mill because they absorb moisture rapidly.

Thermolabile materials like vitamins and antibiotics are milled inside chilled equipment.

Fine dust, such as dextrin, starch and sulphur, is a potential explosive mixture under certain conditions.

Why must hygroscopic materials be comminuted inside a closed equipment like a ball mill?

What type of equipment is suitable for milling thermolabile materials like vitamins and antibiotics?

Why should fine dust inflammable materials be handled with caution in milling processes?

What is the suitable moisture content for materials to be ground dry?

How does moisture content influence the milling process?

What properties does moisture content influence that can affect size reduction?

Moisture content more 5% enhances the milling process and improves the particle size reduction

Less than 5% moisture is suitable for dry grinding of substances

More than 50% moisture is suitable for wet grinding of substances

What is the difference between hardness and toughness of a material?

Why might a soft but tough material present more problems in size reduction than a hard but brittle substance?

How does moisture content relate to the toughness of pharmaceutical materials?

Harder materials are generally easier to reduce in size than softer materials.

Toughness is more important than hardness in size reduction of pharmaceutical materials.

Moisture content has no impact on the size reduction process of pharmaceutical materials.

Stickiness causes considerable difficulty in size reduction process.

The final powder may be contaminated with more than 0.1 percent of metal worn from the grinding mill when grinding abrasive substances.

The reverse of stickiness, which can be described as slipperiness, always makes size reduction process more efficient.

What property causes difficulty in size reduction as material may adhere to the grinding surfaces or meshes of the screen?

Which substance may be added to assist in size reduction of gummy or resinous materials?

What may limit the type of machinery that can be used for hard materials during size reduction?

What is a potential concern when milling waxy substances or drugs containing oils or fats?

How can the softening temperature issue be addressed during the size reduction process?

Which type of substances may be affected by the softening temperature issue during size reduction?

Cooling the mill can be used to overcome the softening temperature issue during size reduction

Cellulose is classified as a soft material in terms of hardness

Amobarbital is classified as an abrasive material in terms of hardness

Cellulose is classified as a soft material in terms of hardness

Sucrose is classified as a hard material in terms of hardness

Kaolin is classified as a moderately hard to brittle material

Which pharmaceutical material is classified as 'soft but plastic' in terms of hardness?

Which pharmaceutical material is classified as 'abrasive very hard' in terms of hardness?

Which pharmaceutical material is classified as 'moderately hard to brittle' in terms of hardness?

What type of mill is suitable for obtaining very fine particles like micronized griseofulvin?

Why should size reduction be conducted in a sterile environment for preparations intended for injection or ophthalmic uses?

What type of equipment may be used for milling potent drugs and low dose products to avoid contamination?

Particle size reduction is not important in pharmaceutical manufacturing.

Particle size reduction is necessary for parenteral and ophthalmic preparations.

Contamination of milled materials is not a concern for potent drugs and low dose products.

Which of the following is a principal means of size reduction ?

What is the term used for rubbing and grinding as a means of size reduction?

What is the term used for size reduction by applying pressure?

Size reduction can be accomplished by cutting, shearing, compression, impaction, and attrition.

Grinding and trituration are not means of size reduction.

Is compression a commonly used mechanism of size reduction in pharmaceutical manufacturing?

Which mechanism of size reduction involves crushing the material by application of pressure?

Which mechanism of size reduction involves crushing the material by means of a sharp blade or blades?

Why might a soft but tough material present more problems in size reduction than a hard but brittle substance?

What type of forces break the particles in the process of attrition?

In which scenario does impact occur during size reduction?

What happens to the material in impact during size reduction?

Which methods are used much more widely for size reduction in Pharmaceutical practice?

What type of machines are often termed as Mills for size reduction in Pharmaceutical practice?

Which methods are of limited use in Pharmaceutical practice for size reduction?

Which of the following correct depend rate peocess of size reduction on?

Which factor influences the orientation of the material in the crushing machine during size reduction?

What is a critical aspect that affects size reduction according to ?

Which factor influences the selection of size reduction equipment for materials?

What determines whether a machine hard enough to withstand abrasion effect is used for size reduction?

Why is knowledge of particle size properties and mechanisms important in selecting efficient commercial size reduction machinery?

What is a key factor to consider when selecting size reduction equipment?

Which factor determines whether fine or large particles are needed as the final product?

What influences the selection of equipment to withstand abrasion effects?

Moisture content of the material does not influence the selection of size reduction equipment

Particle size distribution does not influence the selection of size reduction equipment

Coarse particles have no applications in pharmacy as blake jaw crusher, Dodge crusher, Gyratory crusher, and Rotary coal breaker.

Intermediate particles include Hammer mills, Cutting mills, Edge and end runner mills.

Ball mill, Fluid energy mill, and Oscillating granulator are used for producing fine particles.

Which type of equipment is suitable for reducing intermediate particles?

Which particle size reduction equipment is suitable for fine particles?

Which type of particles have no applications in pharmacy?

What type of size reduction mechanism is used in a hammer mill?

How are particles retained within a hammer mill during milling?

What type of slots are often used in the screen of a hammer mill to allow particles to pass through?

What happens to particle inertia as size reduction continues in a hammer mill?

Hammer mill uses a series of hammers hinged on a central shaft for size reduction by impact.

The angular velocity of the hammers in a hammer mill produces a strain rate of up to 80 s−1.

Particles passing through a given mesh in a hammer mill can be much finer than the mesh apertures.

Hammer mills tend to produce powders with broad size distributions.

Is a hammer mill capable of being used as a primary, secondary, or tertiary crusher?

Can small hammer mills be operated on household current?

Does the screenless hammer mill use air flow to separate small particles from larger ones?

What type of motors can be used to drive large hammer mills used in automobile shredders?

What type of power source can small hammer mills used as crushers be operated on?

How does the screenless hammer mill separate small particles from larger ones?

Is it possible to obtain different particle sizes by changing the screen, nature of the hammers, and driving force in size reduction equipment?

TRUE OR FALSE : hammer mill is essentially a steel drum containing a vertical or horizontal rotating shaft or drum on which hammers are mounted?

What is the primary purpose of using a hammer mill in the pharmaceutical industry?

What type of pharmaceutical materials are not suitable for size reduction using a hammer mill?

What particle size range can be achieved using a hammer mill in pharmaceutical applications?

What type of materials can be milled by hammer mills?

In which industry is impact size reduction primarily done by hammer mills?

What is the primary purpose of using a hammer mill in the pharmaceutical industry?

Hammer mills can only be used for milling dry materials.

Particle size reduction is not important in the pharmaceutical industry.

Moisture content does not affect the size reduction process of pharmaceutical materials.

What is the primary purpose of using a hammer mill in the pharmaceutical industry?

What type of materials can be milled by the hammer mills?

What is the impact of hammer mill on agglomerates?

Which of the following correct advantage of using a hammer mill for particle size reduction?

How is the particle size of material controlled in a hammer mill?

What is a feature of the operation of a hammer mill for particle size reduction?

What is a potential issue with the high speed of operation in a hammer mill?

How can the potential damage by foreign objects such as stones or metal in the feed be minimized in a hammer mill?

What must be controlled carefully to prevent choking and decreased efficiency in a hammer mill?

What type of equipment is suitable for reducing intermediate particles?

What property causes difficulty in size reduction as material may adhere to the grinding surfaces or meshes of the screen?

What is the term used for size reduction by applying pressure?

What determines particle size in a Cutter Mill?

What is the pharmaceutical use of a Cutter Mill?

Which factor determines particle size in a hammer mill?

Which of the following correct advantage of using a Cutter Mill for size reduction?

Why is a Cutter Mill not suitable for most pharmaceutical applications?

Which of the following correct disadvantage of using a Cutter Mill for size reduction?

Is Cutter Mill the best option for size reduction when impaction, attrition, or compaction type milling is not effective, especially for tough, fibrous, or resilient materials?

Is Cutter Mill suitable for most pharmaceutical applications due to the formation of wide particles size?

TRUE OR FALSE : Cutter Mill equipment is not expensive

Which method is known for preparing nanosuspensions of drugs with poor water solubility?

What advantage does High pressure homogenization (HPH) offer over conventional size reducing methods?

What is a reported improvement resulting from the use of High pressure homogenization (HPH)?

High pressure homogenization (HPH) is a top down technology used for preparing nanosuspensions of drugs with poor water solubility.

HPH is particularly advantageous for comminution of drug particles because it overcomes the drawbacks of conventional size reducing methods.

Fluid energy milling is also known as air jet milling

In fluid energy milling, particle size reduction is brought about by a combination of impact and attrition

A classifier may be integrated into the milling system to remove particles above a predefined cut-off size

Fluid energy milling can effectively reduce the size of drug particles to less than 20 μm

What is the primary mechanism of particle size reduction in fluid energy milling?

What role does a classifier play in fluid energy milling?

What is the purpose of high velocity compressed air streams in fluid energy milling?

How does attrition contribute to particle size reduction in fluid energy milling?

Fluid energy milling is suitable for meltable materials and heatsensitive drugs.

Raw materials are introduced into the violent and turbulent air stream in fluid energy milling.

Particle size reduction in fluid energy milling is brought about by a combination of impact and attrition.

High Pressure Homogenization (HPH) is not suitable for formulating parenteral formulations due to risk of contamination from milling media.

HPH has been successfully demonstrated to formulate nano suspensions of poorly soluble drugs like prednisolone and carbamazepine for parenteral administration.

HPH can protect from microbial contamination by eliminating potential contaminants in the high pressure environment.

What is a reported improvement resulting from the use of High pressure homogenization (HPH)?

Which method is known for preparing nanosuspensions of drugs with poor water solubility?

Why is High pressure homogenization (HPH) considered suitable for formulating parenteral formulations?

What is the reported improvement resulting from the use of High pressure homogenization (HPH)?

What has been suggested about High pressure homogenization (HPH) as a technique?

What did the formulation of nifedipine as nanoparticles demonstrate?

Is milling immediate due to high-velocity collisions between particles suspended in the air stream?

Are grinding nozzles used to increase particle velocity and impact energy in the milling process?

Does the classifier remove smaller particles in the fluid energy milling process?

What is the purpose of the grinding nozzles in fluid energy milling?

What is the function of the classifier in fluid energy milling?

Why are hygroscopic materials recommended to be comminuted inside closed equipment like a ball mill?

Which of the following correct of micronizing pharmaceutical ingredients?

How is micronization achieved in pharmaceutical manufacturing?

What impact does particle size reduction have on the manufacturing of finished dosage forms?

What does a high feed rate result in during particle size reduction?

Which factor does not influence the particle size during milling?

What is one of the factors that influences particle size during milling?

Particle size depends on the configuration of the mill, feed size, position of the nozzles, design of the classifier, and feed rate.

A high feed rate can result in larger particle size in the size reduction process.

A slow feed rate can result in smaller particle size in the size reduction process.

Is fluid energy milling suitable for milling soft, tacky, fibrous materials?

Does fluid energy milling use inert gases to minimize or eliminate oxidation of susceptible compounds?

Does fluid energy milling produce very small and uniformly distributed particles?

Which of the following correct advantage does fluid energy milling offer in terms of heat-labile substances?

What is a potential benefit of using inert gases instead of air in fluid energy milling?

What type of materials are recommended for ultra-fine grinding using fluid energy milling?

Which of the following correct disadvantage of fluid energy milling?

Why is fluid energy milling considered expensive?

The equipment for fluid energy milling is expensive because it requires additional accessories like fluid energy source and dust collection equipment.

Ball milling is primarily used for pharmaceutical and cosmetic products.

Ball milling can be used for particle size reduction, mixing, blending, and dispersing of materials.

Particle size reduction is not an important application of ball mills.

What are the applications of ball mills ?

In which industries are ball mills widely used?

Which of the following correct technological process applied in ball mills?

What is the primary purpose of a ball milling device of particle size reduction?

What is the function of the cylindrical vessel in a ball milling device?

What initiates the milling process in a ball milling device?

A ball milling device is not capable of controlling the particle size of the material being milled

What is the primary purpose of a ball milling device?

What takes place during the milling process in a ball milling device?

What is the function of the grinding media in a ball milling device?

What is the primary mechanism by which a ball mill produces size reduction?

What percentage of the total volume do the balls typically occupy in a ball mill?

What is the purpose of having balls with different diameters in a ball mill?

Why is the amount of material in a ball mill of considerable importance?

What is the factor of greatest importance in the operation of a ball mill?

At what angular velocity do balls in the ball mill move with the drum until gravity exceeds frictional force?

At what point does a cascading action occur in the ball mill?

What is the optimum rate of rotation dependent on in a ball mill?

What factor is of greatest importance in the operation of the ball mill for efficient size reduction?

At what angular velocity do the balls in the ball mill experience a cascading action for efficient size reduction?

What occurs when the balls in the ball mill are thrown out to the mill wall at high angular velocities?

What is the optimum rate of rotation for a ball mill dependent on?

The optimum rate of rotation is usually of the order of 0.5 revolutions per second.

What are the three types of grinding media commonly used in ball mills?

What is the most frequently used type of grinding media in ball mills?

What is the range of ball sizes commonly used as grinding media in ball mills?

Which of the following correct types of grinding media commonly used in ball mills?

What happens at and above the critical speed in a ball mill?

What is the primary combination of actions involved in ball milling?

The critical speed of a ball mill is the speed at which the balls just begin to centrifuge with the mill.

At and above the critical speed, significant size reduction occurs.

Ball mills are operated from 60 to 85% of the critical speed.

For a given feed, smaller balls give a slower but finer grinding.

What is the empiric rule for the optimum speed of a ball mill?

What percentage of the critical speed are ball mills typically operated from?

How do smaller balls affect the grinding process in a ball mill?

Which of the following correct of critical speed depend on ?

What influences the size of the product in a ball mill?

Critical Speed in a ball mill depends on the chamber size, grinding media size, and material characteristics.

The rate of feed, weight of balls, and discharge freedom are factors influencing the size of the product in a ball mill.

Ball mill can only be used for dry grinding processes.

Rod or bars can also be used as grinding media in a ball mill.

Installation, operation and labour costs are high for a ball mill.

Is the ball mill a very noisy machine?

Is the ball mill a slow process?

Can soft, tacky, fibrous material be milled by ball mill?

What is the principle of operation of the oscillating granulator?

What is the product size obtained from the oscillating granulator?

What type of materials can the oscillating granulator be used for?

What type of equipment can be used for direct collection of wet granulations?

What is the primary function of the specially fitted collector funnel mentioned in the text?

What part of the equipment allows for interchangeability and production of particles with desired size?

How are particles fractured in attrition methods?

What type of materials are roller mills primarily used for?

What is the typical range of particle size achievable with roller mills?

What is the primary function of a colloid mill?

In a colloid mill, what happens when the heavier liquid is added to the chamber?

In some models of colloid mills, what remains constant while the milling process takes place?

What type of device is a colloid mill?

Colloid mills work by passing the material through the narrow gap between the rotor and stator to reduce particle size:

In some models of colloid mills, the stator remains constant while the rotor rotates:

The primary function of the specially fitted collector funnel in the colloid mill is to collect the milled material:

The process of colloid milling is done through the addition of the heavier liquid into the chamber of the mill that performs the shearing process:

Colloid mills are used for dispersion of solid particles within a liquid.

Colloid mills can be used to increase the stability of suspensions and emulsions.

High levels of hydraulic shear are applied to the process liquid in a colloid mill.

What is the primary purpose of a colloid mill?

What controls the particle size produced by a colloid mill?

Why must a colloid mill be jacketed and cooled during operation?

Colloid mills can produce colloidal suspensions, emulsions, and solid dispersions by means of high shear forces

The rotor and stator in a colloid mill can be adjusted to create a very small clearance for producing fine particles

A large amount of heat can be produced during the operation of a colloid mill, necessitating the need for jacketing and cooling

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Test your knowledge about the particle size reduction process, its effects on drug product performance, and its impact on drug product manufacturability.

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