Neurodegenerative Diseases Overview

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24 Questions

Which neurotransmitter is primarily involved in the fine tuning of an organism's movements?


What characterizes Parkinson’s disease (PD) in patients as the disease progresses?

Postural instability

After Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease?

Parkinson’s disease (PD)

What is the primary pathological feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD)?

Degeneration and loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic innervation

Which protein is found in the neuronal inclusions characteristic of Parkinson’s disease (PD)?


Where are the neurons of the substantia nigra located within the central nervous system?

Ventral midbrain

Which disease is characterized by the degeneration of striatal neurons and involuntary jerky movements of the body?

Huntington Disease

What is the name given to the cytoplasmic protein aggregates found in some remaining neurons in Parkinson's Disease?

Lewy Bodies

What is the autosomal dominant trinucleotide repeat found in the huntingtin gene in Huntington Disease?


Which phase of Huntington Disease is characterized by prominent chorea and dystonia?

Hyperkinetic phenotype

What symptom is associated with Hypokinetic phenotypes in Huntington Disease?


Which disease results in the loss of most SN neurons and insoluble cytoplasmic protein aggregates?

Parkinson's Disease

What is the main cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis?

Mutations in the superoxide dismutase gene (SOD1)

Which of the following is a specific symptom of upper motor neuron involvement in ALS?

Brisk tendon reflexes

What is the neuropsychiatric syndrome resulting from thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency?

Wernicke encephalopathy

What are the main clinical features of Korsakoff syndrome?

Profound anterograde amnesia and temporally graded retrograde amnesia with confabulation

What are the gross features associated with Wernicke encephalopathy?

Petechial hemorrhages involving mammillary bodies and bilateral subcortical regions

What is the main cause of subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord?

Cobalamin deficiency from a vegetarian diet

What is the main cause of Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease?

Defects in autophagy and lysosomal degradation

Which area of the brain experiences a reduction in dopamine availability in Parkinson's disease?

Corpus striatum

What are the typical clinical symptoms of Parkinson's disease?

Tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia

How does Parkinson's disease usually progress over time?

Progresses over 10 to 15 years

What is the main cause of death in Parkinson's patients according to the text?

Aspiration pneumonia or trauma from falls

What is the pathological examination of a healthy patient likely to reveal regarding dopamine neurons?

Healthy substantia nigra reveals typical pigmented dopamine neurons

Explore the pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease and Huntington's Disease. Learn about the loss of neurons, presence of protein aggregates, movement disorders, and dementia associated with these conditions.

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