MLT 560: Data Management and Representation in Clinical Information Systems

PrudentLotus avatar
PrudentLotus
·

Start Quiz

Study Flashcards

30 Questions

What is the process of converting information into digital data that can be manipulated by electronic devices?

Digitization

What is the smallest element of information used by a computer?

Bit

What is the number of different codes that can be represented by 8 bits in a byte?

256

What is the purpose of the ASCII code in a computer system?

To store characters

What is the term for the form in which data is stored, processed, and transmitted?

Data representation

What is the term for the devices that store data in digital formats that can be handled by electronic circuitry?

Electronic devices

What is the minimum unit of storage in a computer?

1 byte

What is a logical grouping of related fields in a database?

Record

What is the primary advantage of using Sequential media for storing records?

Easy storage on tape and disk

What is the purpose of an index in Indexed Sequential Access Method (ISAM)?

To list the key field of each record and its physical location

What is a major problem with the Traditional File Environment?

Data redundancy

What is the main difference between Sequential and Direct media?

File structure

What is the primary issue with data inconsistency?

Various copies of data no longer agree

What is the primary function of a Database Management System (DBMS)?

To provide access to a database and control the way data is stored

What is a benefit of using a centralized database?

Improved data consistency and security

What is the primary advantage of a replicated database?

Reduced single-point-of-failure problems

What is the primary goal of designing a database?

To ensure data is accurate and consistent

What is a benefit of using a DBMS?

Improved strategic use of corporate data

What is the purpose of developing a conceptual design in database development?

To create an abstract model of the database from the user or business perspective

What is the type of relationship between a course and its professor?

One-to-many

What is the purpose of normalization in database development?

To reduce data redundancy and improve data integrity

What is an Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD)?

A visual representation of the data model

What is the type of relationship between a student and a course?

Many-to-many

What is the purpose of entity relationship modeling (ERM)?

To develop a conceptual design of the database

What is the main focus of a data warehouse?

To support management decision making

What is the main difference between a data warehouse and a data mart?

A data mart is smaller and simpler than a data warehouse

What is the primary goal of data mining?

To extract new insights from data

What is the term for the process of finding useful patterns and relationships in data?

Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD)

What is the main purpose of metadata in a data warehouse?

To keep track of the data warehouse content

What is the primary application of data mining?

To improve customer service

Study Notes

Data Management and Access

  • Data refers to symbols that represent people, events, things, and ideas
  • Data Representation refers to the form in which data is stored, processed, and transmitted
  • Devices such as smartphones, iPods, and computers store data in digital formats that can be handled by electronic circuitry

Data Representation

  • A bit is the smallest element of information used by a computer
  • A byte is the basic measure of storage in computers, consisting of 8 bits
  • Characters are non-numeric symbols used to convey language and meaning, stored using the ASCII code
  • 1 byte = 1 character

Basics of Data Arrangement and Access

  • The Data Hierarchy: 8 bits => 1 byte => 1 character
  • Field: a logical grouping of characters into a word, a small group of words, or a complete number
  • Record: a logical grouping of related fields
  • File: a logical grouping of related records
  • Database: a logical grouping of related files

Storing and Accessing Records

  • File organizations: sequential media (tape) stores records sequentially based on key values
  • Fixed-length records: a fixed format is used for records
  • Key field uniquely identifies the record

Storing and Accessing Records (Cont.)

  • Direct (or random) media (disks) uses other techniques: Indexed Sequential Access Method (ISAM) and Direct File Access Method
  • Indexed Sequential Access Method (ISAM) uses an index to locate individual records
  • Direct File Access Method uses the key field to locate the physical address of a record

Traditional File Environment

  • Each application has a specific data file related to it, containing all the data records needed by the application
  • Problems with traditional file environment:
    • Data redundancy: same piece of data found in several places
    • Data inconsistency: data in several application data files is hard to access and integrate
    • Data isolation: various copies of data no longer agree
    • Security: may be difficult to limit access to various data items in applications
    • Data integrity: data must be accurate and correct
    • Application/data dependence: applications are developed based on the way data is stored

Database: The Modern Approach

  • A database management system provides access to the data
  • A database is simply the collection of data which you need to store
  • A Database Management System (DBMS) controls the way the data is stored on the computer and provides ways of getting data in and out of the system

Database Management Systems

  • A set of software programs that provide access to a database
  • Data is stored in one location, from which it can be updated and retrieved
  • Application programs are given access to the stored data by various mechanisms
  • Maintaining the integrity of stored information
  • Managing security and user access
  • Recovering information when the system fails
  • Accessing various database functions from within an application

DBMS Benefits

  • Improved strategic use of corporate data
  • Reduced complexity of IS environment
  • Reduced data redundancy and inconsistency
  • Enhanced data integrity
  • Application/data independence
  • Improved security
  • Reduced development and maintenance costs
  • Improved IS flexibility
  • Increased data access

Locating Data in Databases

  • Two choices: Centralized or Distributed
  • Choice will affect user accessibility, query response time, data entry, security, and cost
  • Centralized database: all the related files are in one physical location
  • Distributed database: complete copies of a database, or portions of a database, are in more than one location, close to the user

Designing a Database

  • Steps in designing a database:
    1. Determining the intended uses of the system
    2. Creating a data model
    3. Implementing the database
  • Conceptual design: an abstract model of the database from the user or business perspective
  • Entity Relationship Modelling (ERM) represents the data model as an Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD)

Database Development (Cont.)

  • Types of relationships: one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-many
  • Normalization: a method that reduces a relational database to its most streamlined form
  • Physically implementing the data structure in the database management system software:
    1. Create tables
    2. Define fields and field properties
    3. Establish primary keys
    4. Define table relationships
    5. Add actual data (records) to tables

Using the Stored Data

  • Data warehouse: a database system designed to support management decision making
  • Emphasis is on organizing data in convenient, meaningful ways so that users can get their queries answered
  • Current and historical, detail and summarized data are included
  • Metadata (data about data) is included to help keep track of the data warehouse content
  • Data mart: a small-scale, simpler data warehouse, easier to implement

Data Mining

  • Extracting new insights from data warehouse
  • Sophisticated tools employ algorithms to discover hidden patterns, correlations, and relationships
  • Applications of data mining:
    • Improve products, marketing, sales, and customer service

This quiz assesses understanding of data management and representation in clinical information systems, covering topics such as traditional file environments, database management systems, and data warehouses. It's a key outcome for students of MLT 560 to be able to explain these concepts. Test your knowledge and skills in this area!

Make Your Own Quizzes and Flashcards

Convert your notes into interactive study material.

Get started for free
Use Quizgecko on...
Browser
Browser