Metabolism: Lipolysis and Protein Metabolism

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18 Questions

Which nutrients are most important for protein synthesis?

Amino acids

What controls the process of protein synthesis that occurs on ribosomes?

Growth hormone

What happens to excess dietary proteins in the body?

Oxidized for energy

How are essential amino acids obtained for protein synthesis?

Acquired through the diet

What is the role of amino acids in protein metabolism?

Recycled into new proteins or different compounds

Which hormones control the synthesis of proteins?

Growth hormone, thyroid hormone, and sex hormones

Which type of proteins are found in animal products, soybeans, and considered complete proteins?

Structural proteins

What is the main function of keratin, collagen, and elastin in the body?

Serve as structural materials

According to the 'all-or-none rule' in protein synthesis, what must be present for protein synthesis to occur?

All essential amino acids

Inadequate intake of which nutrients causes proteins to be used as fuel instead of for synthesis?

Carbohydrates or fats

Which hormones promote protein breakdown and conversion of amino acids to glucose?

Glucocorticoids

What accelerates protein synthesis and growth in the body?

Anabolic hormones

What is the state called when the rate of protein synthesis equals the rate of breakdown and loss in the body?

Homeostatic balance

In which condition does protein synthesis exceed breakdown, as seen in normal children and pregnant women?

Positive nitrogen balance

What happens during a negative nitrogen balance?

Protein breakdown exceeds synthesis

What is the general daily intake rule for proteins based on body weight for individuals over 19 years old?

0.8 g per kg body weight

Which type of vitamins are absorbed with water, not stored in the body, and are excreted if not used within an hour?

Water-soluble vitamins

Which vitamin, when consumed in excess, can lead to health problems due to storage in the body?

Vitamin D

This quiz covers the breakdown of stored fats into glycerol and fatty acids, as well as the metabolism of proteins. Topics include the preference of fatty acids for fuel by the liver and muscles, the production of ketone bodies, and metabolic acidosis. © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

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