Mechanisms of Chemical Messenger Action Quiz

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AstoundingMoldavite8381
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30 Questions

What is the main function of cell-to-cell communication?

Controlling the growth and development of cells

Which of the following is NOT a basic method of cell-to-cell communication mentioned in the text?

Long-distance communication via direct cytoplasmic transfer

What type of molecules can diffuse directly through gap junctions between cells?

Amino acids, ATP, and cyclic AMP

Which type of cell signaling involves surface molecules binding between adjacent cells?

Contact-dependent signals

What is responsible for most communication within the body according to the text?

Chemical signals secreted into ECF

Which statement about gap junctions is FALSE based on the text?

Large molecules can pass through gap junctions

What is the role of ligand binding to a G protein-coupled receptor?

Opens an ion channel

How do integrin receptors respond to ligand binding?

Alters the cytoskeleton

Which enzymes are responsible for removing phosphates in signal transduction pathways?

Phosphatases

What does the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation system act as in signal transduction pathways?

Molecular switch

What allows a small amount of signal to have a large effect in signal transduction?

Signal amplification

What is the purpose of multistep pathways in signal transduction?

Providing opportunities for coordination and regulation

What is the term for the process in which receptors become less responsive?

Desensitization

In signal transduction, what initiates the sequence of events in the cell leading to its response?

Messenger binding to the receptor

What term is used for the chemical messengers that bring information to the target cell?

First messengers

Which term is used for intracellular mediators that bring about short-term changes in cell function?

"Second messengers"

What brings about the alteration of transcription of various genes in signal pathways?

"Second messengers"

What do first messengers bring to the target cell?

"Information"

Which type of intercellular communication involves diffusion of cell products in the extracellular fluid to affect neighboring cells?

Paracrine communication

In which type of intercellular communication do ligands on one cell's surface bind to receptors on the surface of the next cell?

Juxtacrine communication

Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) primarily function in which type of intercellular communication?

Paracrine signaling

What is the main function of hormones in intercellular communication?

Development of tissues

Which type of signaling pathway involves a signal being converted from a cell's surface into a specific cellular response?

Signal transduction pathway

Where are hormones primarily secreted in the body for intercellular communication?

Endocrine glands

What is the role of G proteins in the GPCR signal transduction process?

Open ion channels in the membrane

Which part of the G protein serves as a transducer molecule in GPCR signal transduction?

α

What is the function of diacylglycerol (DAG) in the signal transduction pathway involving GPCRs?

Activates protein kinase C (PKC) to phosphorylate proteins

What is the role of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) in GPCR signal transduction?

Causes the release of Ca2+ from organelles

Which enzyme is activated by G proteins during GPCR signal transduction to convert membrane phospholipids?

Phospholipase C (PLC)

What happens to the receptor-channel in response to a signal molecule binding in GPCR signal transduction?

Opens to allow ion flow

Test your knowledge on the mechanisms of how chemical messengers act on target cells. Learn about processes such as ligand-receptor binding, activation of receptors, and initiation of synthesis of target proteins. Explore the concept of desensitization and downregulation in cellular signaling pathways.

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