Marxist Lens on Capitalism

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35 Questions

What is the main focus of a political economy approach?

What does the text suggest about market-oriented distribution of pollution?

Why do we justify polluting people who are paid less?

What kind of social organization explains the logic of 'under-pollution'?

According to the production of nature thesis, what does it argue?

What does the spatial fix allow capitalism to do?

What does social reproduction of society involve?

What is a problem with the political economy perspective on environments?

According to eco-feminism, what is a source of environmental degradation?

What does the production of nature thesis caution us against thinking about human behavior?

What is one effect of the spatial fix on capitalism?

What is a key problem with anthropocentric perspectives according to the text?

What is emphasized by eco-feminism?

What does social reproduction involve providing for workers?

What is the focus of Political Economy approaches based on Karl Marx's work?

According to Historical Materialism, what leads to the destruction of societal stages?

What do Forces of Production in the mode of production consist of?

In capitalist systems, how are commodities exchanged?

Who controls the means of production in capitalism?

What do laborers work for in capitalism?

What is the production of nature thesis cautioning against?

What is the spatial fix in global capitalism primarily responsible for?

What does eco-feminism primarily emphasize?

What is one problem with the political economy perspective on environments according to the text?

What does social reproduction of society primarily involve?

What does historical materialism propose about societal progression?

What does the mode of production in capitalism consist of?

In capitalism, who controls the means of production?

What is the first contradiction identified in capitalism according to the text?

How does capitalism encourage environmental exploitation according to the text?

What does the political economy approach emphasize in understanding environmental problems?

What does the 'under-pollution' logic justify based on arguments of efficiency?

What is the focus of the production of nature thesis according to the text?

What kind of social organization explains the 'under-pollution' logic?

What does the text caution us about in relation to market-oriented distribution focused on efficiency?


Marxist Lens on Capitalism: Key Theories and Contradictions

  • Political Economy approaches are based on Karl Marx's work, focusing on Capitalism's structures as a political/economic order
  • Capitalism explains environmental issues and perceptions
  • Historical Materialism: Societal progression from hunter-gathers to communist stages, each containing seeds of its destruction due to inequality
  • Stages distinguished by unique mode of production and social structures
  • Mode of production consists of Forces of Production (means and conditions of production) and Relations of Production
  • Commodities are created through human action and have value, exchanged in capitalist systems
  • In capitalism, only some control means of production, laborers work for wages, and bourgeoisie gain surplus value
  • Accumulation of wealth into fewer hands leads to social inequality
  • Modern capitalism began with primitive accumulation and then capitalist accumulation during the industrial revolution
  • First contradiction: Overaccumulation leads to overproduction and underconsumption, causing economic crises
  • Second contradiction: Capitalism undervalues environmental conditions necessary for its own propagation, leading to environmental degradation and overextraction of resources
  • Capitalism encourages environmental exploitation by seeing nature as external and commodifiable, leading to natural destruction


Explore key Marxist theories and contradictions related to the structures and impacts of capitalism. Discover how historical materialism and the mode of production concept provide insights into societal progression and inequality within capitalist systems.

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