2.2 Alveolar Ventilation

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What is a main purpose of ventilation?

Exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide

Which equation is used to measure physiologic dead space?

Bohr equation

How does alveolar ventilation affect alveolar gas tensions?

It increases oxygen tension and decreases carbon dioxide tension

Which lung capacity is determined by the strength of contraction of the inspiratory muscles?


What effect does a decrease in Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) have on Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)?

Decreases ERV

Which parameter greatly increases in obstructive lung disease?


Which method cannot be used to measure Residual Volume (RV)?


What is used to measure lung volumes when the subject must be conscious and cooperative?

Water-seal spirometer

What causes airway closure to begin at the Closing Volume?

Decreased traction on small airways

During the 2nd breath, where does most of the oxygen enter initially?

Upper alveoli

What does tidal volume refer to?

The amount of air that normally moves into (or out of) the lungs with each respiration

What is a consequence of aging on lung volumes and capacities?

Increased chest wall inward recoil

Which condition could be a reasonable explanation for a patient's significantly decreased functional residual capacity?

All of the above

Which phase during expired gas measurement indicates the beginning of dependent airway closure?

Phase IV

If a seated person inspires from residual volume, where would most of the inhaled gas end up after the dead space?

In alveoli in upper portions of the lung

How do lung volumes change from standing to supine position?

RV and TLC slightly decrease or do not change at all

What is a major characteristic of a restrictive lung disease?

Reduced compliance and compressed lung volumes

What is the function of a Spirometer?

Measure lung volumes the subject can exchange with it

What happens to FRC during obstructive lung disease?

Greatly increased

How does an increase in physiologic dead space typically occur in a healthy individual?

Due to an increase in alveolar dead space

What is the main function of functional residual capacity (FRC) in the lungs?

To resist sudden changes in alveolar air composition

How does alveolar dead space differ from physiologic dead space?

Alveolar dead space is ventilation reaching alveoli that are now perfused

What happens to the partial pressure of CO2 in blood if dead space increases if there is no compensation?

It increases

In which phase of respiration do the last 150 ml of air in the anatomic dead space remain not fresh?


Vital Capacity (VC) decreases in obstructive lung disease.


Anatomic dead space is part of physiologic dead space.


The Bohr equation is used to measure alveolar ventilation.


Alveolar ventilation affects alveolar gas tensions.


Functional residual capacity (FRC) decreases when transitioning from standing to supine position.


Regional differences in alveolar ventilation occur at Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) and Residual Volume (RV).


Closing Volume is the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of a normal tidal expiration.


Alveolar ventilation mainly impacts regional distribution of alveolar oxygen and nitrogen.


Dalton's law explains the composition of respiratory gases in the alveoli.


If a patient's functional residual capacity is significantly less than expected, which of the following positions is least likely to have caused this reduction?

Standing position

What would be an expected outcome if a seated person inspires from residual volume and most of the inhaled gas remains in the anatomic dead space?

Decreased alveolar ventilation

What is most likely to contribute to a paradoxical decrease in lung function test results?

An increase in residual volume

Explore the standard lung volumes and capacities in the human respiratory system. Learn about vital capacity, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory reserve volume, and residual volume, all measured at BTPS conditions.

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