Liver Function Anatomy

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What is the approximate weight of the liver in a healthy adult?

1.2-1.5 kg

Which lobe of the liver is approximately 6 times larger than the other?

Right lobe

What is the main function of Kupffer cells in the liver?

Act as active phagocytes capable of engulfing bacteria, debris, and toxins

What are the components of a portal triad in the liver?

Hepatic artery, Portal vein, Bile duct

What percentage of the total blood supply of the liver comes from the hepatic artery?

25%

What are the two major cell types of the liver?

Hepatocytes and Kupffer cells

Which enzyme is responsible for the conversion of cholesterol into bile acids in the liver?

Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase

What is the primary function of the urea cycle in the liver?

To convert ammonia to urea

Which molecule is stored in the liver as ferritin?

Iron

What is the approximate daily production of bilirubin in a healthy adult?

$150-250$ mg

What is the main function of bile salts in the liver?

Emulsification of fats

Which type of bilirubin is water-soluble and reacts slowly?

Conjugated bilirubin

The liver is approximately 1.2-1.5 kg in a healthy adult, divided into 2 lobes: 1. Right (6 times larger) and 2. left, unequally divided by the ______ ligament

falciform

The portal vein supplies nutrient-rich blood from the digestive tract, responsible for 75% of the total blood supply of the liver. The hepatic artery supplies oxygen-rich blood from the heart, responsible for 25% of the total blood supply of the ______

liver

Hepatocytes are large cells that make up approximately 80% of the volume of the organ, performing the major functions associated with the liver and are responsible for the ______ properties of the liver

regenerative

Kupffer cells line the sinusoids of the liver and act as active phagocytes capable of engulfing bacteria, debris, toxins, and other substances flowing through ______

sinusoids

Functional units of the liver responsible for all the metabolic and excretory functions of the liver are called ______

lobules

Portal triads consist of: Hepatic artery, Portal vein, and ______

Bile duct

Bilirubin conjugates two glucoronic chains to unconjugated bilirubin rendering it water-soluble for elimination in the ______ and urine

bile

Bile is composed of bile acids or salts, pigments, and ______

cholesterol

Liver converts fatty acids into acetyl-CoA which is then converted into ketone bodies and ______

cholesterol

Liver serves as a gatekeeper between substances absorbed from the intestinal tract through the portal vein (first pass effect) and those released into the systemic circulation. First pass effect allows essential materials to enter the systemic circulation while preventing the entry of toxic and harmful substances. Detoxification of ammonia into urea through the urea cycle since excess ammonia is toxic to the brain (encephalopathies) Of the detoxification functions of the liver, drug metabolizing system is the most important ✓ Drugs may be detoxified through oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, hydroxylation, carboxylation, and ______

demethylation

The liver is the storage site for: ✓ Vitamin A, D, and ______

B12

Approximately 250-350 mg of bilirubin is produced daily in a healthy adult, about 85% of which is derived from turnover of senescent red blood cells. Major metabolite of heme, the iron-binding tetrapyrrole ring in: ✓ Hemoglobin ✓ Myoglobin ✓ Cytochrome ✓ ______

Catalases

Unconjugated bilirubin is water insoluble, non-polar bilirubin, and slow reacting. Prehepatic bilirubin causes of Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia: Hemolysis Gilbert’s syndrome Crigler-Najjar syndrome Hepatic diseases Fasting ______

Lucey-Driscoll

Hepatocellular dise ______

ases

Liver is the storage site for: ✓ Vitamin A, D and B12 ✓ Iron (Ferritin) ✓ Water-soluble vitamins ✓ ______

Glycogen

Bilirubin is the principal pigment in bile. Approximately 250-350 mg of bilirubin is produced daily in a healthy adult, about 85% of which is derived from turnover of senescent red blood cells. Major metabolite of heme, the iron-binding tetrapyrrole ring in: ✓ Hemoglobin ✓ Myoglobin ✓ Cytochrome ✓ ______

Catalases

Test your knowledge of the anatomy and function of the liver, the chief metabolic organ of the body. Learn about its structure, blood supply, and major cell types.

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