English Keywords

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What is the study of the writing system of a language and other visual elements on the page?


Which part of language deals with letters and spelling?


Which aspect of language focuses on the pronunciation and sound patterns that influence the understanding of words?


What is the study of the social context's influence on the usage of words and phrases?


Which part of language deals with the structure of words and their meaning, including inflection and derivation?


Provide an example of a word created through blending in the text.


What is the term for the process in which new words are formed by changing existing words?


What is coalescence in the context of word formation?

when sounds are clipped from endings of words or between two words where the articulation merges or coalesces

Give an example of a loanword.

Loanwords can be words like 'sushi' from Japanese or 'croissant' from French.

Explain backformation with an example from the text.

The creation of new words by clipping longer words. Example: babysitter to babysit.

Explain the concept of coinage with an example.

Coinage involves the creation of entirely new words, like 'Google' for the search engine.

What is onomatopoeia and provide an example?

The process of replicating sounds through words. Example: 'moo' or 'quack.'

What are neologisms and where are they commonly found?

Neologisms are new words that seemingly come from nowhere and are often prevalent in advertising.

Describe the process of reduplication in word formation.

The process of duplicating sounds. Example: 'chick-flick', 'mish-mash'.

Provide an example of an eponym and explain its origin.

An example of an eponym is 'Alzheimer's' named after the doctor who identified the disease.

Explain the difference between blending and compounding as mentioned in the text.

Blending combines segments of words, while compounding relies on complete words.

What is telescoping in the context of word formation?

Telescoping refers to shortening words to create new ones.

Explain the process of amelioration in the context of changes in meaning.

Amelioration is the process in which the meaning of a word becomes more positive. For example, 'Nice' originally meant 'clumsy' but now means kind.

Provide an example of pejoration and explain how it impacts the meaning of a word.

Pejoration is the process in which the meaning of a word becomes more negative. For instance, 'Silly' originally meant 'blessed' but now means 'foolish'.

Describe the concept of broadening and give an example of this phenomenon.

Broadening is when the meaning of a word loses its specificity and becomes more general. For example, 'Bird' originally referred to young avians but now encompasses all avian creatures.

Illustrate the process of narrowing with an example from the text.

Narrowing is when the meaning of a word becomes more specific. For instance, 'Girl' originally meant 'young person' but now specifically refers to a female young person.

Explain how influences from foreign languages contribute to the creation of synonyms.

Influences from foreign languages often lead to multiple words of the same meaning being adopted, thus creating synonyms.

Describe the difference between broadening and narrowing in the context of changes in word meaning.

Broadening expands the meaning of a word to be more general, while narrowing makes the meaning more specific.

What is the main difference between the Prescriptivist and Descriptivist views of language change?

Prescriptivist view language change as a decline in standards, while Descriptivist view language as what people say with no superior variety.

Define the term 'Corpus' and explain its significance in linguistics.

A Corpus is a collection of spoken and written texts, significant in studying language patterns and variations.

What are Word Sketches and how are they related to Lemmas and Collocations?

Word Sketches show relationships between Lemmas (base/root of a word) and Collocations (word pairings).

Explain the concept of Collocation with an example from the text.

Collocation refers to the pairing of words with similar affiliation, like 'team leader' or 'tea leaves'.

How does the Descriptivist Approach view the standards of language in terms of right and wrong?

Descriptivist Approach sees no right or wrong standards in language as long as communication is clear.

Define Turn-taking in the context of discourse features.

Turn-taking is the process of allowing each member of the conversation an opportunity to speak without overlap.

Explain Adjacency Pairs and provide an example.

Adjacency Pairs are statements or questions followed by responses. For example, a question like 'How are you?' is followed by the response 'I'm good, thank you.'

What does it mean to 'Hold the Conversational Floor'?

To hold the conversational floor means to be the participant who is currently speaking in a conversation.

Explain the importance of Opening Greetings in conversations.

Opening greetings are phrases used to initiate conversations and set a friendly tone.

Describe the role of Body Language and Gestures in conjunction with Opening Greetings.

Body language and gestures often accompany opening greetings, enhancing the verbal message with non-verbal cues.

Explain the concept of passing ownership in conversation and provide two different methods mentioned in the text.

Passing ownership in conversation involves hinting at a desire for another participant to speak instead. This can be done by bringing up a participant's name in discourse or hesitating for a moment.

What is clashing in conversation and how is it resolved according to the text?

Clashing in conversation occurs when two individuals speak at the same time. It is resolved by one of the speakers letting go of the conversational floor, usually depending on context and relative status.

Describe the concept of repairing in conversation and provide an example of how it is done.

Repairing in conversation involves noticing an error in a statement and attempting to correct it. An example would be saying 'I mean' or questioning a statement for clarification.

What is topic shift in conversation and how is it typically initiated?

Topic shift is the changing of topics in conversation. It is typically initiated with expressions like 'Oh, that reminds me...'

Explain the significance of body language in conversation endings as mentioned in the text.

Body language in conversation endings reinforces closure and future interactions. For example, standing up can signal the end of a conversation.

How does existing familiarity influence body language synchronization in conversation?

Existing familiarity between participants leads to synchronized body language. This synchronization can help in smoother communication and understanding.

Explain the difference between prosodic and paralinguistic features in communication.

Prosodic features refer to the manner of speaking like intonation and stress, while paralinguistic features include non-verbal elements like body language and gestures.

How do feedback signals contribute to effective communication in a conversation?

Feedback signals help show the listener's engagement and understanding in a conversation.

Describe the significance of vocal expressions like giggling, sighing, tutting, oohing, and aahing in communication.

Vocal expressions reflect the speaker's emotions and intentions, enhancing the message conveyed.

How do pauses in a conversation contribute to the overall communication process?

Pauses can signify unease, tension, or the listener's contemplation of a response.

Explain the role of verbal responses, like 'Absolutely', in reinforcing communication.

Verbal responses indicate agreement, understanding, or encouragement in a conversation.

How does non-verbal communication, such as facial expressions and body language, complement verbal messages?

Non-verbal cues like facial expressions and body language provide additional context and reinforce the spoken words.

What linguistic term is used to describe the use of 'I mean to say' or 'I should have said' after realizing a fault in speech?


Give an example of a non-fluency feature that gives speakers time to think and extends the utterance.

Fillers like 'mmm...'

What term is used for polite 'ice-breakers' used to open conversations, such as 'how are you'?

Phatic Communication

How can hesitation be reflected in the verb structure of a sentence, according to the text?

By using modal verbs

What kind of questions prompt a response from the listener and are exemplified by 'It's hot here, isn't it'?

Tag Questions

What type of expressions are used to soften authoritative requests and maintain speaker engagement, as shown in the example 'Can you get me a cheese sandwich, or something like that'?

Vague Expressions

Define the term 'Metalanguage' and provide an example.

Metalanguage refers to the language used to speak about language itself. An example is discussing the concept of deixis in linguistics.

Explain the difference between 'Elision' and 'Ellipsis' with examples.

Elision refers to the omission of sounds in pronunciation, like 'fraɪt.nɪŋ'. Ellipsis, on the other hand, is the omission of words in a sentence, such as '(...)'.

Describe the role of 'Hedges and Vague Language' in communication and provide examples.

Hedges and Vague Language are used to soften the force of statements and avoid directness. Examples include 'kind of' and 'basically'.

What are 'Discourse Markers' and why are they important in language?

Discourse Markers are words that connect different parts of conversation. They are crucial for maintaining coherence and cohesion in communication.

Explain the concept of 'Fixed Expressions' and their role in language usage.

Fixed Expressions are repetitive phrases like 'In my opinion...' that provide predictability in speech. They help in conveying ideas consistently.

Define 'Back-channeling' and discuss its significance in verbal communication.

Back-channeling refers to noises, gestures, or expressions used by listeners to show engagement. It helps speakers know they are being listened to.

Explain the significance of the Tonic Syllable in a tone unit.

The Tonic Syllable is usually a significant word near the end of the tone unit, where pitch movement occurs.

Define the term 'Holophrastic' in the context of language acquisition.

Holophrastic refers to the many possibilities a word may have according to a child who is just beginning to understand them.

Explain the concept of Overextension in language development.

Overextension is the broadening of a word's meaning by children when a more suitable word is not available.

Describe the characteristics of speech sounds known as Plosives.

Plosives are sounds that create a small puff of air when pronounced, like /b/ and /p/.

What is the focus of the Telelgraphic Stage in language development?

The Telegraphic Stage focuses on brief utterances containing only essential information.

Explain the term 'Overextension' with a specific example from language acquisition.

Overextension is when a child uses 'daddy' to refer to any man, broadening the word's meaning beyond its typical scope.

Define underextension and provide an example.

Underextension is the narrowing of a word's meaning by children when they do not have a more suitable word. For example, using 'shoes' only when referring to their own shoes, not others'.

Explain the concept of hypernyms with an example.

Hypernyms are words that serve as a super generalized form of several other words. For instance, 'food' is a hypernym for 'bread', 'meat', and 'vegetables'.

What are hyponyms and provide an example?

Hyponyms are words categorized under a more generalized form. For example, 'carrot' and 'potato' are hyponyms for 'vegetable'.

Define virtuous error in language development and give an example.

Virtuous errors are mistakes made by children applying regular rules to irregular forms. For example, saying 'runned' instead of 'ran'.

Explain the concept of idioms and provide an example.

Idioms are expressions with non-literal meanings. For instance, 'you're pulling my leg'.

Describe the process of narrowing in language development with an example.

Narrowing refers to the restriction of a word's meaning. For example, using 'shoes' to refer to specific shoes.

Explain the differences between Restricted and Elaborated Codes.

Restricted Code is characterized by limited lexis and reasoning, simple sentences, and assertive statements. Elaborated Code, on the other hand, features varied lexis, complex sentences, and reasoning, including the use of the passive voice.

What are the six functions of language according to Halliday?

The six functions of language according to Halliday are Instrumental, Regulatory, Interactional, Personal, Representational, Heuristic, and Imaginative.

Describe the Instrumental Function of language.

The Instrumental Function of language is used to fulfill a need.

Explain the difference between Regulatory and Interactional Functions of language.

The Regulatory Function is used to influence the behavior of others, while the Interactional Function is used to develop social relationships and facilitate interactions.

Define the Representational Function of language.

The Representational Function of language is used to exchange, relay, or request information.

Describe the Imaginative Function of language.

The Imaginative Function of language is used to explore the imagination.

Explain the concept of Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) according to Vygotsky's Cognitive Theory.

The ZPD is the gap between a child's present skills and knowledge and what they are capable of achieving with the help of a more knowledgeable other.

Describe the process of Initiation-Response-Feedback (IRF) in educational settings.

IRF involves the teacher asking a question, the student responding, and the teacher providing feedback on the student's response.

Explain the significance of Object Permanence in cognitive development.

Object Permanence is the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they are not in sight. It is a crucial cognitive milestone in infants' development.

Discuss the characteristics of the Concrete Operational Stage in Piaget's Cognitive Theory.

In the Concrete Operational Stage, children develop the ability to think logically about concrete events and understand conservation. They can also classify objects into different categories.

Explain the role of Formal Operational Stage in adolescent cognitive development.

The Formal Operational Stage allows adolescents to think abstractly, use logic, and engage in hypothetical thinking. It enables them to understand complex concepts and solve problems systematically.

Describe the concept of Sensorimotor Stage and its importance in early cognitive development.

The Sensorimotor Stage is characterized by infants exploring the world through their senses and motor activities. It lays the foundation for understanding object permanence and developing basic cognitive skills.

Explain the concept of diachronic linguistics.

Relating to language change through time.

Define the term 'lingua franca'.

A medium of communication between peoples of different languages.

What is the significance of vocal expressions like giggling, sighing, tutting, oohing, and aahing in communication?

They convey emotions, attitudes, or reactions non-verbally.

Explain the process of accommodation as mentioned in the text.

The desire to sound like people you like.

Define 'coalescence' in the context of word formation.

When two sounds merge into one in a word.

Describe the difference between prosodic and paralinguistic features in communication.

Prosodic features relate to the music of speech, while paralinguistic features include tone, pitch, volume, etc.

Study Notes

Language Studies

  • The study of the writing system of a language and other visual elements on the page is called Graphology.
  • Orthography deals with letters and spelling.
  • Phonology focuses on the pronunciation and sound patterns that influence the understanding of words.
  • Sociolinguistics studies the social context's influence on the usage of words and phrases.
  • Morphology deals with the structure of words and their meaning, including inflection and derivation.

Word Formation

  • Blending creates new words by combining parts of existing words, e.g., "smog" from "smoke" and "fog".
  • Derivation is the process of forming new words by changing existing words.
  • Coalescence is the blending of two words to form a new word.
  • Loanwords are words borrowed from another language, e.g., "sushi" from Japanese.
  • Backformation is the creation of a new word by removing a prefix or suffix, e.g., "edit" from "editor".
  • Coinage is the creation of a new word, e.g., "selfie".
  • Onomatopoeia is a word that imitates a sound, e.g., "buzz".
  • Neologisms are newly created words, often found in scientific or technical fields.

Language Change

  • Amelioration is a change in meaning that elevates the status of a word.
  • Pejoration is a change in meaning that lowers the status of a word.
  • Broadening is a change in meaning that widens the scope of a word.
  • Narrowing is a change in meaning that reduces the scope of a word.
  • Influences from foreign languages can create synonyms.

Corpus Linguistics

  • A Corpus is a large collection of texts used for linguistics research.
  • Word Sketches are visual representations of word meanings and relationships.
  • Lemmas are base forms of words, and Collocations are frequent word combinations.

Discourse Features

  • Turn-taking is the process of switching speaking roles in a conversation.
  • Adjacency Pairs are pairs of utterances that respond to each other.
  • Holding the conversational floor means maintaining speaking rights.
  • Opening Greetings often involve body language and gestures.
  • Passing ownership in conversation can be done through verbal or non-verbal cues.
  • Clashing in conversation occurs when speakers interrupt each other.
  • Repairing in conversation involves resolving misunderstandings.
  • Topic shifts are initiated through verbal or non-verbal cues.

Paralinguistic Features

  • Prosodic features relate to speech rhythm, stress, and intonation.
  • Paralinguistic features include vocal expressions like laughing, sighing, and tutting.
  • Feedback signals in conversation help maintain communication flow.
  • Pauses in conversation can signal thinking time or uncertainty.
  • Verbal responses like "Absolutely" reinforce communication.
  • Non-verbal communication, such as facial expressions and body language, complements verbal messages.

Language Development

  • Hesitation can be reflected in verb structure, e.g., "I was going to say..."
  • Metalanguage refers to language used to talk about language itself.
  • Elision is the omission of sounds or syllables, while Ellipsis is the omission of words.
  • Hedges and Vague Language soften messages and maintain speaker engagement.
  • Discourse Markers are words or phrases that connect ideas, e.g., "so" or "anyway".
  • Back-channeling is the use of verbal or non-verbal cues to show engagement.
  • The Tonic Syllable is the most prominent syllable in a tone unit.

Language Acquisition

  • Overextension is the use of a word to refer to a broader category, e.g., calling all animals "dog".
  • Underextension is the use of a word to refer to a narrower category, e.g., using "dog" only for small dogs.
  • Hypernyms are words that have a broader meaning, e.g., "animal" for "dog" or "cat".
  • Hyponyms are words that have a narrower meaning, e.g., "dachshund" for "dog".
  • Virtuous error is an error that is beneficial for language development, e.g., using "goed" for "went".
  • Idioms are phrases with non-literal meanings, e.g., "kick the bucket".

Cognitive Development

  • The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) is the range of knowledge just beyond a child's current abilities.
  • The Instrumental Function of language is used to achieve practical goals.
  • The Regulatory Function of language is used to control the behavior of others.
  • The Representational Function of language is used to convey information.
  • The Imaginative Function of language is used for creative expression.

Diachronic Linguistics

  • Diachronic linguistics studies language change over time.
  • A lingua franca is a language used for communication between groups that speak different languages.

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