Life Histories and Reproduction Methods Quiz

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What is the life history of a species?

The pattern of survival and reproduction events for a member of the species

What is an example of a different method of reproduction mentioned in the text?

Hummingbirds that produce fewer eggs and live longer

What falls upon the axis of variation in life histories?

Rapid growth rate and carrying capacity

What is a life history trait?

How individuals live and their reproductive strategy

What is reproductive value?

The number of offspring an individual expects

What does the text suggest about kiwi birds' egg-laying behavior?

They invest a lot into egg production due to lack of predation

What is the concept called where mutations have a positive effect earlier in life but a negative effect when old?

Antagonistic pleiotropy

In evolutionary time, what leads to the accumulation of mutations?

Positive effect of mutations when young

What causes a higher rate of senescence according to the text?

Likelihood of dying in a year

What is the term used for the situation where heterozygotes have higher reproductive success for much longer?

Heterozygote advantage

What concept suggests that bad mutations accumulate and have a negative effect later in life?

Mutation accumulation

What does the term 'senescence' refer to in this context?

Age-related physiological decline

In a stable population, what happens to the reproductive value as individuals age?

It increases initially and then begins to fall as individuals start reproducing

What is the principle of allocation in the context of resource distribution for organisms?

Putting resources into either maintenance of cells or reproduction based on need

Which scenario best exemplifies the trade-off concept discussed in the text?

People having to choose between a nice house and a nice car

What is the hidden assumption that ruins the idea of changing to semelparity giving one more offspring at a cost?

The adult organism is already fully grown and alive, so its survival is not the same as the offspring's survival

What happens to the reproductive success of plants in dry sites according to the text?

Reproductive success is less in dry sites despite constant effort per episode

What does senescence refer to in the context of organisms?

A cellular response characterized by stable growth arrest and proinflammatory secretome

What does the principle of allocation suggest about resource distribution?

It indicates that organisms can only allocate resources into either maintenance of cells or reproduction based on need

What does iteroparous mean in the context of organism reproduction?

It indicates organisms that mature later and at larger size where there is less predation

What is meant by semelparity in terms of organism reproduction?

It implies that organisms die in large numbers after a specific period of time

What does the text imply about the reproductive value of individuals as they age?

It peaks at the age of maturity before falling as individuals start reproducing

What does the evidence suggest about the relationship between larval survival and other life history traits?

There is a negative correlation between larval survival and other life history traits

What term describes the situation where one species prevents another from occupying a niche by being superior?

Competitive exclusion

Which mechanism is driven by similar mechanisms, but it leads to changes in the behavior of another species due to resource use/allocation?

Character displacement

In the context of species interacting via resources such as stealing food, what is this an example of?

Exploitation

In the context of bird species eating seeds, what does the term 'trait usefulness' refer to?

Beak useful for certain seed sizes

In the context of the expected density/distribution of trait sizes in animals due to resource exploitation, what is measured by the K curve?

Expected distribution of trait size

What does the term 'exploitation of resource' refer to in the context of birds and seed sizes?

Trait usefulness

What is the term used to describe the phenomenon where a species rapidly diversifies into multiple new forms, each adapted to a specific environment?

Adaptive radiation

In the context of sticklebacks, what does the term 'limnetic habitat' refer to?

Open water habitat

What is the impact of character displacement on gill raker length in stickleback species?

Increase in gill raker length

What gene seems to increase in frequency in response to predation in sticklebacks?

Msx2a

What term is used to describe the pattern of character displacement observed in finches with different beak sizes?

Trait under dispersion

What factor led to a change in beak size in finches after the drought in 1970's?

Predation pressure

In the context of sticklebacks, what does 'canine diameter' refer to?

Size of the teeth

What does the lack of overlap of canine diameter across different weasel species suggest?

Trait under dispersion

What do traits more widely separated than randomly generated/separated traits indicate according to the text?

Competition for resource space.

What term best describes the situation where heterozygotes have higher reproductive success for much longer?

Heterozygote advantage.

What does the principle of allocation suggest about resource distribution?

The resource allocation is based on trade-offs and competition.

What term is used to describe an evolutionary change that occurs when two similar species inhabit the same environment?

Character displacement

What is the term for species that do not have overlapping geographic ranges?

Allopatric

What does character displacement refer to in the context of species interaction?

Competing for mates rather than food

In the context of sympatric species, what can be observed when individuals compete for the same resource?

Loss of characteristic traits

What does the term 'allopatry' refer to in the context of species distribution?

Species living apart in different environments

What is the primary characteristic of sympatric species?

Living together in the same place at the same time

What is the term for the situation where heterozygotes have higher reproductive success than either corresponding homozygote?

Overdominance

'Competitive exclusion' refers to which scenario?

'One species outcompeting another for resources'

What does the term 'competitive exclusion' refer to in the context of species interaction?

One species prevents another from occupying a niche by being superior

What does the term 'exploitation of resource' refer to in the context of species interaction?

Species act via the resource, e.g., stealing food

What is meant by 'character displacement' in the context of species interaction?

Driven by similar mechanism, but it leads to changes in the behavior of another species due to resource use/allocation

What does the term 'exploitation' refer to in the context of species interaction?

Species act via the resource, e.g., stealing food

What is the key characteristic of 'competitive exclusion' in the context of species interaction?

Prevents a species from occupying a niche

In what way does 'exploitation' impact species interaction?

Driven by similar mechanism, but it leads to changes in the behavior of another species due to resource use/allocation

What is the term used to describe the phenomenon where two similar species inhabit the same environment?

Sympatry

What is the term for species that do not have overlapping geographic ranges?

Allopatry

What does character displacement refer to in the context of species interaction?

Changes in trait value when species inhabit the same environment

What is the term for the situation where heterozygotes have higher reproductive success for much longer?

Iteroparous

What is meant by semelparity in terms of organism reproduction?

Organisms reproduce only once in their lifetime

What concept suggests that bad mutations accumulate and have a negative effect later in life?

Mutation accumulation

What is the primary characteristic of sympatric species?

Sharing the same habitat

What gene seems to increase in frequency in response to predation in sticklebacks?

Gill raker gene

What happens to the reproductive success of plants in dry sites according to the text?

Reproductive success is lower

What concept refers to the situation where one species prevents another from occupying a niche by being superior?

Competitive exclusion

What term describes a situation where mutations have a positive effect earlier in life but a negative effect when old?

Senescence

What is an example of a method used to study character displacement in stickleback fish?

Comparing the growth rates of limnetic and benthic stickleback fish

What is the term used to describe the pattern of character displacement observed in finches with different beak sizes?

Trait overdispersion

What gene seems to increase in frequency in response to predation in sticklebacks?

Msx2a

What term best describes the situation where heterozygotes have higher reproductive success than either corresponding homozygote?

Overdominance

What does the lack of overlap of canine diameter across different weasel species suggest?

Trait overdispersion due to competition

What is meant by semelparity in terms of organism reproduction?

Having a single reproductive event followed by death

What is the term for the situation where one species prevents another from occupying a niche by being superior?

Competitive Exclusion

What is the impact of character displacement on gill raker length in stickleback species?

Divergence of gill raker length when species occur together

In evolutionary time, what leads to the accumulation of mutations?

Trait Overdispersion due to competition

Test your knowledge on the different methods of reproduction and variations in life histories of species. Explore topics such as survival patterns, reproduction events, egg-laying strategies, and species lifespans.

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