Legal Principles: Ignorantia Legis Neminem Excusat

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What did William Harvey describe in 1628?

The circulation of blood

Who proposed a primitive version of the 'germ theory' in the 16th century?

Girolamo Fracastoro

Which Jewish physician and philosopher devised guidelines for using urine as a diagnostic aid around 900 AD?

Isaac Judaeus

Who conducted the first successful blood transfusion in animals in 1665?

Richard Lower

What did Marcelo Malpighi ascertain the existence of?


In what century was the latter part heralded as the premier phase of laboratory medicine?

17th Century

What is the purpose of the legal principle 'Ignorantia legis neminem excusat'?

To prevent a person from claiming ignorance of the law to avoid liability

Based on the Latin maxim Lex prospicit, non respicit, why do laws generally operate prospectively?

To protect vested rights and prevent their retroactive application

Under what conditions may rights be waived according to legal principles?

Unless the waiver contradicts law, public order, or morals

Why are laws repealed according to legal principles?

Only by subsequent laws and not by any other means

What happens when a court declares a law inconsistent with the Constitution?

The law is void and the Constitution takes precedence

How does the doctrine of waiver apply to rights and privileges?

It allows for waiver as long as it does not conflict with specified conditions

Which legal principle states that only a law can repeal another law?

Doctrine of Hierarchy of Laws

What is defined as 'a rule of conduct formed by repetition of acts, uniformly observed (practiced) as a social rule, legally binding and obligatory'?


In the legal context described in the text, what happens if an Administrative or Executive act is contrary to law or the Constitution?

It is invalid

Which statement accurately reflects the legal status of customs according to the text?

Customs must be proved as a fact

What is the supreme law to which all other laws must conform, according to the information provided?


Which type of legislative fiats have legal effects in the practice of Medical Technology in the Philippines?

Medical Technology Laws

Who is considered the Father of Medicine?


In what year did physicians in Babylon make observations on urine color and consistency?

4000 BC

Which Greek physician is credited with first describing hematuria or blood in the urine?

Rufus of Ephesus

Who performed the autopsy on the corpse of Julius Caesar in 44 BC, earning the title 'First Forensic Pathologist'?


Which ancient documents contained accounts describing polyuria and intestinal worms, confirmed by discovery of calcified helminth eggs in mummies?

Ebers Papyrus

Which ancient physician rejected the concept of sickness as a punishment from gods?



May 13, 1970

Who was elected as the first President of PASMETH?

Dr. Gustavo U. Reyes

When was PASMETH formally registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission?

October 6, 1985

What was the purpose of the Medical Technology Board establishing mutual relations with PASMETH?

To develop and update course syllabi to improve performance in licensure examinations

What is one of the goals of PASMETH as stated in the text?

To encourage the study of medical technology education needs and offer solutions

Where was the first annual meeting of PASMETH held?

University of Santo Tomas on May 17, 1971

Study Notes

Brief History of Laboratory Science and the Practice of Medical Technology

  • Julius Caesar's autopsy revealed 23 wounds, with only one penetrating the chest cavity, between the first and second ribs.
  • In 500 AD, Indian physicians observed that certain types of urine attracted insects due to high sugar content, calling it "madhumeha" or "honey urine".
  • In 900 AD, Isaac Judaeus devised guidelines for using urine as a diagnostic aid.
  • In the 16th century, Girolamo Fracastoro proposed a primitive version of the "germ theory", later validated by Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur.
  • Koch also discovered the tubercle bacillus as the causative agent of tuberculosis.
  • In 1628, William Harvey described the circulation of blood, with Marcelo Malpighi later fortifying the concept by ascertaining the existence of capillaries.
  • Malpighi is described as the "greatest" of the early microscopists and is considered the "Founder of Pathology".
  • In 1665, Richard Lower conducted the first successful blood transfusion in animals.

Basic Legal Principles

  • Ignorantia legis neminem excusat: a person cannot relieve themselves of liability by claiming ignorance of the law.
  • Laws shall have no retroactive effect, unless the contrary is provided, based on the Latin maxim "Lex prospicit, non respicit" (the law looks forward, not backward).
  • Rights may be waived, unless the waiver is contrary to law, public order, public policy, morals, or good customs, or prejudicial to a third person with a recognized right.
  • Laws are repealed only by subsequent ones, and their violation or non-observance shall not be excused by disuse, custom, or practice to the contrary.
  • The Constitution is the supreme law of the land, and administrative or executive acts, orders, and regulations are valid only when not contrary to the laws or the Constitution.
  • Only a law can repeal another law, and customs contrary to law, public order, or public policy shall not be countenanced.

Medical Technology Laws

  • Medical Technology laws are legislative fiats with legal effects in the practice of Medical Technology in the Philippines.

Brief History of Urinalysis

  • Urinalysis has been carried out since ancient times, with the oldest known test dating back to around 4000 BC in Babylon.
  • In 1500 BC, Egyptian documents described observations on the color and consistency of urine, including polyuria and intestinal worms.
  • The Ebers Papyrus, an Egyptian document, contained accounts of these observations, confirmed by the discovery of calcified helminth eggs in mummies dating back to 1200 BC.

Hippocrates and Rufus of Ephesus

  • Hippocrates, a Greek physician born around 460 BC, studied signs and symptoms in humans and correlated them with possible diseases.
  • He rejected the concept of sickness as a punishment from gods and is considered the "Father of Medicine".
  • Rufus of Ephesus, a Greek physician, first described hematuria or blood in the urine.

The Philippine Association of Schools of Medical Technology and Public Health (PASMETH)

  • PASMETH is the national organization of recognized schools and colleges of medical technology and public health in the Philippines.
  • It was established on May 13, 1970, with the first organizational meeting held at the University of Santo Tomas on June 22, 1970.
  • Dr. Gustavo U. Reyes was elected as the first President, and the first annual meeting was held at the University of Santo Tomas on May 17, 1971.
  • PASMETH was formally registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission as a non-stock and non-profit entity on October 6, 1985.
  • PASMETH aims to upgrade the quality of graduates by establishing mutual relations with the Medical Technology Board to develop and update course syllabi.

Explore basic legal principles such as Ignorantia Legis Neminem Excusat and the concept of laws having no retroactive effect. Learn about the Latin maxim Lex prospicit, non respicit and understand why laws operate prospectively.

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