Lecture 7: The Functions of Play - The 'why' of Adaptive Value

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What is the main driving force of evolution according to Darwin and Wallace?

Natural selection

How does natural selection operate?

By differential success of individuals with heritable traits

What can natural selection lead to over many generations?

Speciation

Why is it mentioned that natural selection does not involve conscious decision-making?

To contrast it with artificial selection

Which of the following is NOT one of the key components of natural selection?

Genetic Drift

What is the role of variation in natural selection?

To increase chances of survival for some individuals

What is the primary function of selective pressures in an environment?

To make organisms better adapted

In which type of natural selection are individuals with extreme phenotypes at both ends of a trait distribution favored?

Disruptive Selection

What happens to the frequency of a favored trait in directional selection?

Shifts in one direction over time

What is the outcome of stabilizing selection on a population?

Population becomes more homogeneous in terms of a trait

What is the main idea behind incremental change as discussed in the text?

To outcompete neighbors through appearance

How is hereditary information transferred according to Pangenesis theory?

Through 'pangenes' or 'gemmules' from reproductive organs to various parts of the body

What did many biologists at the time reject as the mechanism for evolutionary change?

Pangenesis

What did Gregor Mendel discover about traits through his plant breeding experiments?

Traits can be dominant or recessive

How did Mendel account for the appearance and disappearance of traits in his experiments?

By hypothesizing the existence of genes

What concept combines Darwin's Natural Selection with Mendel's Genes?

The Modern Synthesis

How is evolution by natural selection conceptualized in terms of changes in a population?

Changes in allele frequencies

'Tinbergen’s Hypothesis' addresses which adaptation related to black-headed gulls and their nesting behavior?

Egg-shell removal by crows

Explore the concept of function in relation to structure, with examples like the long neck of giraffes. Learn about how structures evolve over time to better suit their functions, as explained by the mechanism of natural selection by Darwin and Wallace.

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