Kidney Autoregulation Mechanisms Quiz

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30 Questions

How does the net filtration pressure change when Glomerular capillary blood pressure increases?

Increases

What happens to the GFR when there is vasoconstriction in the afferent arteriole?

Decreases

How does vasodilation in the afferent arteriole affect the GFR?

Increases

What is the most variable factor that causes significant changes in the kidney's compensation for Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)?

Mean arterial pressure

How does the sympathetic nervous system regulate glomerular blood flow?

Regulating the caliber of afferent arterioles

Which nervous system has no influence on the kidneys?

Parasympathetic nervous system

What are the two main mechanisms involved in autoregulation of GFR in the kidneys?

Myogenic mechanism and tubuloglomerular feedback

What happens to the afferent arteriole when GFR is high?

Vasoconstriction

What triggers afferent arteriole vasoconstriction in the myogenic mechanism?

High MAP

Where does tubuloglomerular feedback occur?

Juxtaglomerular apparatus

What are the three basic renal processes?

Glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion

What is the role of podocytes in the glomerular membrane?

Podocytes with foot processes help in retaining blood cells and plasma proteins.

Describe the structure of the glomerular capillary wall.

Simple epithelial layer with large pores (fenestrations)

What percentage of water is reabsorbed at a normal GFR of 125 ml/min?

99%

Why is glomerular capillary blood pressure higher than elsewhere in the body?

Due to the larger diameter of the afferent arteriole compared to that of the efferent arteriole.

What type of transport is reabsorption from the tubular lumen to the blood?

Transepithelial transport

What causes the plasma-colloid osmotic pressure in the glomerular membrane?

Unequal distribution of plasma proteins across the glomerular membrane.

How is glomerular filtration regulated?

By various pressures at the glomerular membrane.

What is the percentage of total Na+ reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule?

67%

Which hormone affects Na+ reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct?

Aldosterone

What is the primary function of the Na+/K+ ATPase pump in the basolateral membrane?

Na+ reabsorption

What percentage of total water reabsorption occurs in the loop of Henle?

15%

What percentage of total water reabsorption occurs in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct?

20%

Which ion plays a critical role in the kidneys' ability to produce urine of varying concentrations in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle?

Cl- (Chloride)

What is the key role of Na+ reabsorption in regulating arterial blood pressure?

Na+ reabsorption is crucial for the regulation of extracellular fluid (ECF) volume, which in turn impacts arterial blood pressure.

How does the Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) affect Na+ reabsorption?

RAAS increases Na+ reabsorption.

Explain the relationship between water reabsorption and plasma/blood volume regulation.

Water reabsorption is essential for regulating plasma/blood volume.

How does Aldosterone impact Na+ reabsorption in the distal and collecting tubules?

Aldosterone stimulates Na+ reabsorption in the distal and collecting tubules.

What impact does Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) have on Na+ reabsorption?

ANP decreases Na+ reabsorption.

What triggers the Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) to activate?

A fall in NaCl/ECF volume/blood pressure triggers the activation of RAAS.

Test your knowledge on how kidneys maintain a constant glomerular filtration rate (GFR) through autoregulation in response to changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP). Learn about the myogenic and tubuloglomerular feedback mechanisms that regulate afferent arteriole constriction and dilation.

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