Kidney Structure and Function Quiz

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3 Questions

Match the following parts of the kidney with their functions:

Cortex = Filtration of blood Medulla = Concentration of urine Renal pelvis = Collects urine from the kidney Nephrons = Basic functional unit of the kidney

Match the following kidney disorders with their descriptions:

Nephritis = Inflammation of the kidney Renal calculi = Formation of kidney stones Renal failure = Inability of the kidneys to function properly Polycystic kidney disease = Formation of fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys

Match the following substances with their reabsorption sites in the kidney:

Sodium = Proximal convoluted tubule Water = Descending limb of loop of Henle Urea = Collecting duct Glucose = Proximal convoluted tubule

Study Notes

Kidney Functions

  • The Bowman's capsule filters blood and produces filtrate
  • The proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs water, ions, and nutrients
  • The Loop of Henle facilitates countercurrent multiplication and concentrates filtrate
  • The Distal convoluted tubule regulates electrolyte balance and pH
  • The Collecting duct regulates water reabsorption and electrolyte balance

Kidney Disorders

  • Nephritis: inflammation of the kidney
  • Nephrotic syndrome: excessive protein loss in the urine
  • Chronic kidney disease: gradual loss of kidney function
  • Kidney stones: formation of minerals in the urinary tract
  • Acute kidney injury: sudden loss of kidney function

Reabsorption Sites in the Kidney

  • Glucose, amino acids, and other nutrients: proximal convoluted tubule
  • Water and ions: Loop of Henle and distal convoluted tubule
  • Electrolytes: distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct
  • Urea: medullary collecting duct

Test your knowledge of the structure and functions of the kidney by matching its parts with their functions, kidney disorders with their descriptions, and substances with their reabsorption sites.

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