Ketone Bodies: Metabolism and Functions

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What is the main function of ketone bodies in the body?

Serve as alternative fuel when glucose is scarce

Which of the following compounds are collectively known as ketone bodies?

Acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, acetone

During which state does the hepatic production of acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate increase significantly?

Starvation state

What triggers the process of ketone body synthesis (ketogenesis) in the liver?

Excess acetyl CoA from β-oxidation

In what conditions do the concentrations of acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate remain low in the blood?

During the fed state

Which statement about ketone bodies is true?

They are a main source of energy for the brain during prolonged starvation

What is the role of ketone bodies in the body?

They can be used by extrahepatic tissues to meet energy needs

Which enzyme is considered the rate-limiting step in ketone body synthesis?

HMG-CoA synthase

How does glucagon hormone affect HMG-CoA synthase activity?

Activates HMG-CoA synthase

What happens to HMG-CoA synthase activity when CoASH levels in the liver are high?

HMG-CoA synthase is inhibited

How do ketone bodies contribute to sparing glucose during fasting?

Ketone bodies can be used as an alternative fuel source instead of glucose

Which tissue can use ketone bodies to meet its energy needs?

Brain

What triggers an increase in the production of ketone bodies during fasting?

Insulin deficiency

In which tissues are ketone bodies utilized as a fuel during prolonged starvation?

Muscles, brain, and kidneys

What happens when the rate of formation of ketone bodies exceeds their utilization?

Ketonemia and ketonuria occur

Which enzyme is responsible for reactivating acetoacetate to form acetoacetyl CoA in nonhepatic tissues?

Thiophorase

What is the main cause of ketosis in diabetic patients with uncontrolled blood glucose?

Insulin deficiency

How does the lack of insulin contribute to increased ketone body synthesis?

It decreases glucose utilization

What process is increased as a result of following a strict ketogenic diet?

Lipolysis

Which of the following is a consequence of a significant reduction in blood sugar levels due to a ketogenic diet?

Hypoglycemia

What is the primary metabolic role of ketone bodies in the body?

Fuel for the brain and muscles

What happens if there is a progressive depletion of the alkali reserve in the blood due to the presence of certain acids?

Ketoacidosis

Which condition is associated with uncontrolled diabetes and is characterized by high levels of ketone bodies in the blood?

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)

What is the major consequence of high fat and protein intake in ketogenic diets?

Ketoacidosis

How do ketone bodies put the body into a state of ketosis?

By being used as the primary energy source

Test your knowledge on the metabolism and functions of ketone bodies, including their solubility, production in the liver, and utilization by various tissues in the body.

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