John Locke's Philosophy and Tabula Rasa

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According to John Locke, how is the 'self' identified?

Consciousness and continuity of memory

What is the main emphasis of Empiricism as explained by David Hume?

Role of experience and evidence in forming concepts

According to David Hume, what is the 'self' composed of?

A bundle of impressions from experience and sensation

What concept did John Locke associate with the 'self' that provides continuity of experience over time?

Memory

According to St. Augustine, what did he believe about the human being?

A combination of an aspect dwelling in the world and yearning for the divine, and another incapable of reaching immortality.

What did Rene Descartes conceive as the two distinct entities that make up the self?

The cogito (mind) and the extenza (body)

What was Plato's view on the nature of the self according to the text?

The self is an immaterial but rational soul that is divided into aspects dwelling in the world and yearning for the divine.

What did Rene Descartes consider to be the only thing that one cannot doubt?

The existence of self

According to Socrates, what is the true task of a Philosopher?

To examine and know oneself

What did Plato believe about the composition of the soul?

The soul is composed of reason, feeling, and emotion

What did Philosophy originally mean to the Greeks?

The pursuit of knowledge for its own sake

How did Merriam-Webster define self?

The union of elements such as body, emotions, thoughts, and sensations

Freud's structural division of the psyche includes which of the following levels of consciousness?

Conscious, Pre-conscious/subconscious, Unconscious

What was Gilbert Ryle's view on the concept of 'self'?

The self is simply the convenient name for all the behaviors that people exhibit.

Paul Churchland's philosophy is based on which view?

Materialistic view

What was Freud's concept that operates according to the reality principle?

Ego

Study Notes

Philosophical Views on the Self

  • According to John Locke, the 'self' is identified through consciousness and continuity of experience over time.

Empiricism and David Hume

  • The main emphasis of Empiricism, as explained by David Hume, is that all knowledge comes from experience and observation.
  • According to David Hume, the 'self' is composed of different perceptions or experiences that are bundled together.

John Locke's View on the Self

  • John Locke associated the concept of personal identity with the 'self', which provides continuity of experience over time.

St. Augustine's View on Human Beings

  • St. Augustine believed that human beings are rational and social, and that they have a tendency towards evil.

Rene Descartes' View on the Self

  • Rene Descartes conceived the self as composed of two distinct entities: the mind (res cogitans) and the body (res extensa).
  • Rene Descartes considered the only thing that one cannot doubt to be his own existence, expressed in the phrase "I think, therefore I am" (Cogito, ergo sum).

Plato's View on the Self

  • According to the text, Plato believed that the self is immortal and exists before birth and after death.

Socrates and Philosophy

  • According to Socrates, the true task of a philosopher is to seek wisdom and understanding.

Plato's View on the Soul

  • Plato believed that the soul is composed of three parts: reason, spirit, and appetite.

Origins of Philosophy

  • Philosophy originally meant "love of wisdom" to the Greeks.

Definition of Self

  • According to Merriam-Webster, the self refers to the entire person of an individual, including their physical and psychological makeup.

Freud's Psychoanalysis

  • Freud's structural division of the psyche includes the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious levels of consciousness.
  • Freud's concept of the ego operates according to the reality principle.

Gilbert Ryle's View on the Self

  • Gilbert Ryle rejected the idea of the self as a non-physical substance or entity.

Paul Churchland's Philosophy

  • Paul Churchland's philosophy is based on eliminative materialism, which rejects the existence of non-physical mental states.

Test your knowledge of John Locke's philosophical views and his concept of 'Tabula rasa'. Explore the connection between the mind, body, and consciousness according to Locke's philosophy.

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