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Jean Piaget: Cognitive Development

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According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, what did he believe intelligence to be?

An inborn, natural ability that develops over time

In Piaget's theory, what does the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development focus on?

Understanding the world through senses and actions

How many stages of cognitive development did Piaget propose in his theory?

Four

According to Piaget's theory, why do children construct knowledge in new ways at critical points during development?

To adapt to their environment

What was one of the key beliefs of Piaget regarding cognitive development stages in children?

Children pass through the stages in a consistent sequence

In Piaget's theory, what characterizes the formal operational stage of cognitive development?

Thinking logically about abstract concepts

What is the primary focus of moral reasoning at the conventional stage?

Conformity to societal expectations

According to Kohlberg, at what stage does an individual wish to win the approval of others?

Stage 3 (good boy—nice girl)

What is a characteristic of moral decisions at the postconventional level?

Acting based on personal principles

What did Carol Gilligan criticize about Kohlberg’s theory?

Failure to explore female experiences in moral development

At what level of moral reasoning do individuals recognize the possibility of changing the law to improve society?

Postconventional level

What is a key difference Gilligan highlighted between male and female moral development?

Males prioritize justice while females focus on caring

What do individuals at the conventional level believe determines what is right?

Authorities

What guides individuals at the postconventional level of moral reasoning?

Set of principles like social justice and human dignity

What does Kohlberg's theory seem to suggest about levels of moral reasoning?

Certain levels are better than others

At what level is morality based on a personal moral code?

Postconventional Level

What is a key characteristic of the concrete operational stage of cognitive development?

Understanding that objects can remain the same despite changes in their appearance

Which term refers to the belief that an adolescent's thoughts and feelings are unique to them, often leading to risk-taking behaviors?

Personal fable

What is the main difference between concrete operational thinking and formal operational thinking?

Thinking abstractly and hypothetically

What does the ability of conservation refer to in cognitive development?

Seeing objects as remaining the same despite changes in appearance

Which theorist posited a theory of adolescent egocentrism focusing on characteristics like the imaginary audience and the personal fable?

David Elkind

What is a limitation of Piaget's theory of cognitive development, as mentioned in the text?

Overestimation of cognitive competence in adolescents

During which stage of cognitive development do children begin to understand that events can be viewed from different perspectives?

Concrete operational stage

Which skill is necessary for locomotion and mobility and involves determining shapes and locating objects?

'Spatiality skills'

At what age range do children exhibit egocentrism and see themselves as the center of the universe?

2 to 6 years

Which stage of development is characterized by children using symbols like words and images to represent objects?

Preoperational

What milestone in cognitive development involves understanding that objects continue to exist even though they cannot always be seen?

Object permanence

During which stage of development do children begin to understand the concepts of reversibility and spatiality?

Concrete operational

What is a characteristic of children in the concrete operational stage according to Piaget?

Thinking is still literal and sometimes rigid

Which stage of development marks the emergence and mastery of language as one of its major hallmarks?

Preoperational

What do children in the sensorimotor stage learn through primarily?

Play and exploration

At which age range do children demonstrate deliberate, intentional behavior like moving a hand to find a hidden toy?

0 to 2 years

What condition, during the preoperational stage, involves attributing feelings and motives to objects?

Animism

What major concept do children at the concrete operational stage struggle with?

Conservation

At what age range does the conventional reasoning stage of moral development typically begin?

10 to 13 years

In the preconventional level of moral development, what is the primary motivation for individuals at stage 1?

Avoiding punishment

Which of the following best describes the instrumental orientation in the preconventional moral reasoning stage?

Acting on personal needs for personal gain

According to Kohlberg, why did he pose ethical dilemmas in his study?

To understand reasoning behind decisions

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Kohlberg's theory of moral development?

Stages can be skipped

What is the primary focus of Kohlberg's analysis in moral dilemmas like the story of Heinz?

Understanding reasoning used to justify decisions

Explore Jean Piaget's theory on cognitive development and how children acquire knowledge, intellect, and cognition over time. Understand how intelligence is believed to be an inborn ability that develops as children grow and adapt to their environment.

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