English Theories

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What does Halliday's Functional Theory believe about language change?

It enables changing economic and social functions in society.

According to Cultural Transmission Theory, what contributes to passing information from individual to individual?

Teaching and language.

How does Halliday's Functional Theory view the shortening of words?

As supporting efficiency among users.

What is the main focus of Cultural Transmission Theory?

Learning new information through engagement and socialization.

What aspect of language change is Halliday's Functional Theory vague about?

The reasons for grammatical and semantic changes.

In which theory do Bandura, Mackintosh, and Hartl play significant roles as contributors?

Cultural Transmission Theory.

According to Cultural Transmission Theory, how is language transmitted?

From the emerging generation to the pre-existing generation

What factor influences the effectiveness of language learning based on Cultural Transmission Theory?

Understanding the language's word meaning and order

In Cultural Transmission Theory, why does language change occur?

When individuals and groups perceive a benefit in a change

Which theory attributes language changes to people favoring specific pronunciations over time?

Random Fluctuation Theory

What concept does Substratum Theory relate language change to?

The global spread of languages through contact

What does the Theory of Lexical Gaps aim to address?

The need for new words to emerge in a language

According to Guy Deutscher's ideas in 'The Unfolding of Language', why does language change occur?

As a result of predictable patterns and shortcuts, along with efforts to be expressive

What does Basil Bernstein's theory of restricted code suggest about language?

It is always context-bound and understood only by a specific group

How does Basil Bernstein's elaborated code differ from restricted code?

It is understandable by all, not just a specific group

What can be inferred about the relationship between restricted code and elaborated code in Bernstein's theory?

They serve different purposes based on the context

According to B.F. Skinner in his theory of language acquisition, what encourages children to develop language?

Praise and approval like 'good girl' or 'clever boy'

Why does Skinner believe language is acquired according to the text?

By imitation of sounds and receiving praise and approval

Which language model believes that languages change as they are split from a common core like family trees?

Tree Model

Which proto-language is considered the shared ancestor for the Romance Languages?


What is a characteristic of New York street slang based on the Wave Model?

It weakens as it moves further away from its origin.

What does the S-curve Model propose about language change?

It begins slowly, speeds up, and eventually levels off.

Jean Aitchison's book Language Change: Progress or Decay discusses whether language change results in:

Accommodation to evolving needs of users.

How does the Wave Model explain language evolution?

Through splitting and moving away from a common core.

According to Vygotsky, what determines a child's thinking and learning?

Social interaction and guidance

What is the term Vygotsky used to describe the gap between present knowledge and future achievements?

Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

What educational concept involves the teacher asking students about their ideas, with the teacher providing feedback?

IRF Pattern

According to Piaget, how does language development occur?

As a result of cognitive development

What is one way in which Vygotsky's and Piaget's views on language development differ?

Vygotsky believes language drives cognitive development, Piaget believes the opposite

Why are TV documentaries about child development mentioned in the text?

To show expanded scope of studying child development, including older children and teenagers

What importance does St Ignatius of Loyola's quote 'Give me a child for the first seven years and I will give you the man' have based on the text?

It emphasizes the impact of family and environment on child development

What does Vygotsky believe is necessary for learning to take place?

Guidance and support from others

What is one contribution of Vygotsky's theories to Early Years learning?

Emphasis on structured guidance to bridge knowledge gaps

How does Vygotsky describe the gap between present skills and future achievements?

Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

According to Piaget, how does language development progress in children?

Language development progresses alongside cognitive development.

Which stage of cognitive development involves the understanding of conservation in children?

Concrete Operational Stage

What important concept in children's development involves realizing that things have an independent existence?

Object permanence

At what age typically does the Preoperational Stage occur according to Piaget?

2-5 years

What did Vygotsky challenge in Piaget's theories?

The role of language in cognitive development.

What distinguishes the Formal Operational Stage according to Piaget?

Ability to think logically about observable situations.

Which theorist emphasized the importance of universal stages of child development gathered through independent experiences?

Jean Piaget

'Object permanence' as described by Piaget refers to a child realizing that objects:

'Continue' to exist even when not seen.

At what age do children typically enter the Formal Operational Stage according to Piaget?

12+ years

What is a key feature of the Preoperational Stage according to Piaget?

Egocentric perception

According to Chomsky's theory, what role does the LAD play in language development?

It is innate and aids children in acquiring their native language.

In Genie's case, what did her inability to sequence words suggest about Chomsky's theory?

The LAD may not account for all aspects of language development.

What does Jerome Bruner's Language Acquisition Support System (LASS) address about Chomsky's LAD?

It highlights the importance of parental interaction in language development.

According to Bruner, what is the main role of parents and caregivers in the Language Acquisition Support System (LASS)?

To interact regularly with the child and assist in naming objects.

How does the Language Acquisition Support System (LASS) differ from Chomsky's LAD?

LASS emphasizes active involvement of parents in language development.

What aspect of language acquisition does cognitive development theory link?

Language and cognitive development are interdependent processes.

Which theory emphasizes that language development is most intense between ages two and five?

Bruner's LASS

'Genie' case study suggested the existence of a critical period for what aspect of development?

'Genie' case study implied a critical period for native language acquisition.

'Genie' never appearing able to sequence words supported what notion?

'Genie' showed limitations in Chomsky's LAD regarding word sequences.

'Genie' case study raised questions about what aspect of Chomsky's LAD?

'Genie' raised questions about the innate nature of LAD.

What evidence supports the existence of the Language Acquisition Device (LAD) according to Chomsky's theory?

Children's rapid and effortless acquisition of language skills

Which of the following statements best describes the role of the LAD in language development?

It helps children recognize common features of all languages.

Why do children's virtuous errors support the concept of the LAD?

Because they show children applying deep grammar structures before knowing the correct forms.

How did Eric Lenneberg contribute to the theory of the Language Acquisition Device (LAD)?

By suggesting that exposure to language must occur within a critical period for language acquisition.

What does linguistics author Harry Ritchie argue against regarding Chomsky's theory?

The notion that there is an innate Language Acquisition Device in the brain.

How does Ritchie differ from Chomsky in terms of children's language learning?

By suggesting that children learn language through experience rather than innate programming.

'Virtuous errors' made by children in language learning refer to:

'Good' mistakes that indicate underlying understanding of grammar rules.

Halliday's Functional Theory believes that language change is a tool that enables changing economic and social functions in society.


According to Functional Theory, the shortening of words does not support the need for efficiency among users.


Cultural Transmission Theory emphasizes that learning new information, including language, is primarily through written materials.


Language in our culture consists only of biological information such as the foods we eat.


Bandura and Mackintosh are not important contributors to Cultural Transmission Theory.


Halliday's Functional Theory provides clear reasons for grammatical and semantic changes in formal linguistics.


According to Cultural Transmission Theory, language change occurs when individuals and groups perceive a benefit in a change.


Random Fluctuation Theory by Charles Hockett states that languages change due to the even use of spoken language.


Substratum Theory focuses on changes to the English language influenced by different forms of English around the world.


The Theory of Lexical Gaps addresses the need for certain lexis to emerge in order to maintain a stable stock of words in a language.


Language Acquisition Device (LAD) plays a significant role in language development according to Cultural Transmission Theory.


Cultural Transmission Theory covers all methods of learning, including trial and error.


Guy Deutscher believes that language was invented by mankind.


Substratum Theory focuses primarily on borrowing new words from other languages to enrich English vocabulary.


According to Random Fluctuation Theory, languages change because people tend to favor one way of pronouncing words over many others.


According to Guy Deutscher, language change is solely determined by predictable patterns.


Basil Bernstein's theory equates restricted code with inferior language and elaborated code with complicated language.


The Theory of Lexical Gaps argues that new words can be created by combining existing letters in endless possibilities.


According to Basil Bernstein, restricted code is more suitable for situations where all group members share relevant knowledge.


Language change occurs in Cultural Transmission Theory due to the influence of different forms of English around the world.


B.F. Skinner's theory of language acquisition states that children learn language through reinforcement and conditioning.


In the context of language acquisition, Skinner argues that environmental influences play a minimal role.


Burrhus Frederic Skinner supports the idea that environmental factors significantly influence the language individuals speak.


B. F. Skinner's theory of language acquisition aligns completely with the Behaviorist perspective without any criticisms.


Basil Bernstein's theory of language codes has not been further researched or modified since its proposal in 1971.


Chomsky's theory of LAD completely opposes Skinner's view on language acquisition through reinforcement.


According to Chomsky's theory, the Language Acquisition Device (LAD) alone is sufficient for a child to learn to speak.


The Language Acquisition Support System (LASS) was introduced by Chomsky in 1983 to address the limitations of the Language Acquisition Device (LAD).


Genie's case study indicated that rapid language development can be expected even in extreme cases of parental neglect.


According to Jerome Bruner, the Language Acquisition Support System (LASS) emphasizes that children are passive learners in language acquisition.


The LASS is particularly important for children's language learning between the ages of five and eight.


Genie's case study definitively proved that there is a critical period for native language acquisition.


Both the Language Acquisition Device (LAD) and the Language Acquisition Support System (LASS) theories suggest that language development is dependent on cognitive development.


In the LASS theory, parents and caregivers play an active role in interacting with the child to support language development.


Chomsky's LAD theory takes into account the social interactions of a child with others as a key aspect of language development.


According to Jean Piaget, cognitive theories suggest that children's language development is closely linked with their cognitive abilities.


The Tree Model of Language Change is based on the idea that languages change as they are split from a common core, similar to a family tree.


The languages within the Romance Languages group all trace back to Proto-Germanic.


The Wave Model of Language Change suggests that language features evolve from multiple disturbances or changes, resembling the movement of ripples in water.


The S-curve Model proposes that language changes begin at a high speed and then gradually level off over time.


Jean Aitchison's book 'Language Change: Progress or Decay?' explores the debate between language progress and language decay.


The prescriptive approach to language change advocates for a fixed standard of English that should evolve to accommodate the needs of its users.


The descriptive approach to language change suggests that English should not have a fixed standard but rather adapt to users' evolving needs.


The S-curve Model closely resembles an exponential growth curve.


'Viral' in 'If an image or link goes ‘viral’, it means that it is shared by users to a great extent,' refers to being limited in sharing.


According to Jean Aitchison, language progress and decay cannot coexist.


Jean Piaget revolutionized child-development ideas by asserting that children are miniature adults in their thinking.


According to Piaget, children's cognitive ability is developed separately from their language development.


In the Concrete Operational Stage, children learn the concept of conservation, where something can change in quantity without changing its appearance.


Vygotsky supported Piaget's theories without challenging them in any way.


Piaget believed that children understand language by passively receiving information from their environment.


Vygotsky's Development of Piaget's Ideas led to the conclusion that cognitive development is solely influenced by individual experiences.


The Formal Operational Stage in Piaget's theory occurs during adolescence, around the age of twelve.


According to Piaget, children's cognitive understanding progresses through stages more slowly than their language development.


Piaget's theory has had a minimal impact on the development of primary education curricula.


Language development according to Piaget is a separate process from cognitive development.


Children make virtuous errors of grammar and language which adults generally do not make.


According to Chomsky's theory, all children are born with an instinct for a universal grammar.


Deaf children who have not been exposed to a spoken language may not make up their own language.


Harry Ritchie agrees with Chomsky's LAD theory and supports the idea of innate programming for language acquisition.


Eric Lenneberg stated that the Language Acquisition Device (LAD) must be activated at a critical period for native language acquisition to take place.


According to Ritchie, children learn language primarily through experience rather than having an innate ability for language acquisition.


Chomsky's Language Acquisition Device (LAD) theory suggests that children need reinforcement to learn language.


Children generally acquire language skills slowly and with great effort, according to Chomsky's observations.


The Linguistics author Harry Ritchie believes that children make errors in grammar and syntax because they are not applying deep structures.


Noam Chomsky's theory of Language Acquisition Device (LAD) has been entirely rejected by linguists and neurologists.


Vygotsky believed that learning could be accelerated through guidance and support.


According to Vygotsky, all children will learn to speak their native language regardless of their physical capability for voice production.


Piaget believed that language development precedes cognitive development in children.


The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) refers to the gap between a child's present skills and future achievements.


Vygotsky believed that language development is a stimulus to cognitive development.


The Initiation-Response-Feedback (IRF) pattern of ideas emphasizes one-way communication from the teacher to the student.


'Give me a child for the first seven years and I will give you the man' is a quotation from Jean Aitchison emphasizing the importance of family in a child's environment.


Vygotsky's theories have greatly influenced Early Years learning.


'Child of Our Time' is a TV documentary series about child development presented by Professor Robert Winston.


Vygotsky's theory implies that cognitive development in children can only happen through isolated individual efforts.


Match the following theorists with their beliefs on the relationship between language and cognitive development:

Chomsky = Language development is a result of cognitive development Vygotsky = Language development acts as a stimulus to cognitive development Piaget = Children's cognitive ability is developed separately from their language development Halliday = Believes in universal grammar as a basis for language acquisition

Match the following concepts with their descriptions:

Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) = The gap between present skills and future achievements in children's learning Initiation-Response-Feedback (IRF) pattern = A communication pattern involving teacher-student interaction Language Acquisition Device (LAD) = An innate mechanism for language learning proposed by Chomsky Formal Operational Stage = Involves abstract thinking and hypothetical reasoning according to Piaget

Match the following terms with their explanations:

Concrete Operational Stage = Children learn the concept of conservation where quantity remains the same despite appearance changes Functional Theory = Believes that language change is linked to social functions and efficiency Lexical Gaps = The need for new words to emerge in a language to maintain vocabulary stability Wave Model of Language Change = Explains language evolution as beginning fast then gradually leveling off

Match the following theories with their proponents:

Jean Aitchison = 'Language Change: Progress or Decay?' explores debates on language evolution Burrhus Frederic Skinner = Believes environmental factors significantly influence spoken language Guy Deutscher = Suggests predictable patterns determine language change Jean Piaget = Proposed that cognitive theories are closely linked to children's language development

Match the following stages with their key features:

Early Years learning influenced by Vygotsky = 'Initiation-Response-Feedback' pattern emphasizes teacher-student interaction Cognitive development according to Piaget = 'Zone of Proximal Development' describes gap between present knowledge and future achievements Formal Operational Stage by Piaget = Involves abstract thinking and hypothetical reasoning Concrete Operational Stage characteristics = Learning conservation where quantity remains despite appearance changes

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