Irrigation Terminologies Quiz

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What is the purpose of a diversion dam?

To raise the water level in a river

In drip irrigation, how is water applied to the soil?

By dripping water onto the soil at low rates

What does effective rainfall refer to?

Rainwater used by the crop for growth excluding deep percolation and runoff

What does effective rooting depth refer to?

The depth of soil from which roots extract most of the water needed for evapotranspiration

What is effluent?

Discharges from known sources into bodies of water or land

What does a drop refer to in an in-line canal structure?

A decrease in elevation

What is karst topography primarily shaped by?

Erosion of soluble bedrock

What does the term 'loading limit' refer to in the context of wastewater treatment?

Allowable amount of pollutants discharged per unit time

What does leaching in irrigation refer to?

Percolation of water beyond the plant's root zone

What is a lined channel typically made of for irrigation purposes?

Impermeable material like concrete

In lowland rice production, what does 'land soaking water requirement' depend on?

Initial soil moisture and soil physical properties

What does lateral spacing refer to in irrigation?

Spacing between irrigation laterals

What term refers to the volume of water stored in a reservoir between the minimum water level and normal water level?

Active Storage

Which term describes the rise in maximum flood level due to an obstruction to the flow, such as a dam, being introduced?

Afflux Elevation

What does the term 'aquifer' refer to?

Geologic formation that contains and transmits water

In irrigation, what does 'application efficiency' represent?

Average depth of irrigation water infiltrated and stored in the root zone

What is the term used to describe overgrowths of algae in water producing dangerous toxins?

Algal Bloom

What is meant by 'actual crop evapotranspiration'?

Rate of evapotranspiration equal to predicted crop evapotranspiration

What does the term 'normal depth' refer to in an open channel flow?

The constant flow depth along a longitudinal section of a channel under uniform flow condition

What is the definition of 'outside slope' as per the provided text?

The slope at the downstream face of the embankment

In the context of open channel flow, what is 'normal storage elevation'?

The maximum elevation the water surface can attain without flow in the spillway

How is 'optimal emitter spacing' defined in irrigation practices?

Drip emitter spacing that is 80% of the wetted diameter estimated from field tests

Which term refers to 'water flow that is conveyed in such a manner that top surface is exposed to the atmosphere'?

Open channel flow

What does 'pan evaporation' refer to in hydrology?

Rate of water loss by evaporation from an open water surface of a pan

What is the defining characteristic of a unimodal rainfall pattern?

Total annual rainfall above 1500 mm

What is the upstream face of an embankment?

The side wetted by the impounded water

What is considered waste according to the text?

Any material devoid of usage and discarded

What does water balance account for?

Both water inflows and outflows

What is a well log used for?

Showing aquifer physical characteristics

What characterizes a well-protected reservoir?

Shielded by high mountain barriers in the upper reach of the basin

Study Notes

Open Channel Flow and Water Terminologies

  • Normal depth: constant flow depth along a longitudinal section of a channel under uniform flow conditions
  • Normal storage elevation: maximum elevation of the water surface that can be attained by the dam or reservoir without flow in the spillway

Irrigation Terminologies

  • Access areas: areas open for public entry such as golf courses, public and private parks, playgrounds, schoolyards, and residential landscapes
  • Active storage: volume of water stored in a reservoir between the minimum water level and normal water level
  • Actual crop evapotranspiration: rate of evapotranspiration equal to or smaller than predicted crop evapotranspiration
  • Afflux elevation: rise in maximum flood level from the original unobstructed flood level after an obstruction to the flow has been introduced
  • Algal bloom: overgrowths of algae in water producing dangerous toxins in fresh or marine water
  • Application efficiency: ratio of the average depth of irrigation water infiltrated and stored in the root zone to the average depth of irrigation water applied
  • Aquifer: geologic formation which contains water and transmits it at a rate sufficient to be economically developed for pumping artificially developed well

Canal and Reservoir Terminologies

  • Diversion dam: structure or weir provided across the river or creek to raise its water level and divert the water into the main canal to facilitate irrigation by gravity
  • Diversion water requirement: total quantity of water diverted from a stream, lake, or reservoir to irrigate a crop
  • Drop: in-line canal structure designed to convey canal water from a higher level to a lower level, duly dissipating the excess energy resulting from the drop in elevation
  • Effective rainfall: amount of rainwater that falls directly on the field and is used by the crop for growth and development

Soil and Water Terminologies

  • Effective rooting depth: soil depth from which the bulk of the roots of the crop extracts most of the water needed for evapotranspiration
  • Effective size: particle diameter corresponding to a 10% sieve passing
  • Effluent: discharges from known sources which is passed into a body of water or land, or wastewater flowing out of a manufacturing plant
  • Karst topography: geological formation shaped by the dissolution of a layer or layers of soluble bedrock, usually carbonate rocks such as limestone or dolomite

Land and Water Management Terminologies

  • Land preparation water requirement: amount of water required in lowland rice production which includes water losses through evaporation, seepage, and percolation
  • Land soaking water requirement: amount of water required in lowland rice production which is a function of the initial soil moisture and the physical properties of the soil
  • Lateral spacing: spacing between irrigation laterals
  • Leaching: deep percolation of water beyond the root zone of plants, resulting in loss of salts or nutrients

Test your knowledge on irrigation terminologies including concepts like steady uniform flow, varied/non-uniform flow, active storage in reservoirs, and access areas open for public entry.

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