Introduction to Social Psychology Review Quiz

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30 Questions

According to the passage, which of the following is NOT one of the big ideas in social psychology?

Experimental Design

The tendency to exaggerate one's ability to have foreseen the outcome of an event after learning the outcome is known as:

Hindsight Bias

Which of the following is an integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events?

Theory

The process of assigning participants to the conditions of an experiment such that all persons have the same chance of being in a given condition is called:

Random Assignment

Which of the following is the variable being measured in an experiment?

Dependent Variable

Which of the following is a survey procedure in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion?

Random Sampling

Which of the following is the definition of collectivism?

Giving priority to the goals of one's group and defining one's identity accordingly

What is the main idea behind the self-knowledge concept?

We know more about ourselves than we could learn from external observation

What is the main idea behind the planning fallacy?

The tendency to underestimate how long it will take to complete a task

What is the main idea behind the impact bias?

The tendency to overestimate the enduring impact of emotion-causing events

What is the main idea behind the dual attitude system?

People have differing implicit (automatic) and explicit (consciously controlled) attitudes towards the same object

What is the main idea behind the terror management theory?

People exhibit self-protective emotional and cognitive responses when confronted with reminders of their mortality

What is the term used to describe the belief that others are paying more attention to our appearance and behavior than they really are?

Spotlight Effect

Which of the following is the term used to describe the concept of giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identification?

Individualism

What is the term used to describe the pleasure or joy that one may feel at the misfortune of others?

Schadenfreude

Which of the following terms refers to the study of studies?

Meta-analysis

What is the term used to describe the degree to which an experiment absorbs and involves its participants?

Experimental Realism

Which of the following refers to the beliefs about oneself that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information?

Self-Schema

What is the term used to describe the tendency to perceive a relationship between two variables when none actually exists?

Illusory Correlation

What is the term used to describe the persistence of one's initial beliefs even after the basis for those beliefs has been discredited?

Belief Perseverance

What is the term used to describe the tendency to incorporate misleading information into one's memory of an event?

Misinformation Effect

Which of the following is a theory that explains how people attribute the causes of others' behavior?

Attribution Theory

What is the term used to describe the tendency to attribute someone's behavior to their personality traits rather than situational factors?

Dispositional Attribution

What is the term used to describe a belief that leads to its own fulfillment?

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of self-handicapping behavior?

Expressing oneself in a favorable way

Which of the following best describes the concept of embodied cognition?

The mutual influence of bodily sensations on cognitive preferences and social judgements

Which of the following is a characteristic of automatic or implicit thinking?

Habitual and without awareness

The tendency to presume that someone or something belongs to a particular group if it resembles a typical member is known as the:

Representativeness heuristic

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of self-presentation?

Behaving in ways that undermine one's performance

Which of the following cognitive processes is associated with the tendency to be more confident than correct and to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs?

Overconfidence phenomenon

Study Notes

Social Psychology

  • Social Psychology is the scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another.
  • Big Ideas in Social Psychology include:
    • Social Thinking: constructing our social reality
    • Social Influence: shaping behavior
    • Social Relations: biological behavior

Biases and Errors

  • Planning Fallacy: tendency to underestimate how long it will take to complete a task
  • Impact Bias: overestimating the enduring impact of emotion-causing events
  • Self-serving Bias: tendency to perceive oneself favorably
  • Unrealistic Optimism: expecting a personal future outcome to be more favorable than suggested by an objective standard
  • False Consensus Effect: overestimating the commonality of one's opinions
  • False Uniqueness Effect: underestimating the commonality of one's abilities
  • Illusory Correlation: perception of a relationship where none exists
  • Belief Perseverance: persistence of initial conceptions despite discrediting evidence

Attribution Theory

  • Attribution Theory: explaining how people explain others' behavior
  • Dispositional Attribution: attributing behavior to the person's disposition and traits
  • Situational Attribution: attributing behavior to the environment
  • Misattribution: mistakenly attributing behavior to the environment
  • Fundamental Attribution Error: underestimating situational influences and overestimating dispositional influences on others' behavior

Self and Social Identity

  • Collectivism: giving priority to group goals and defining one's identity accordingly
  • Individualism: giving priority to personal goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes
  • Self-esteem: person's overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth
  • Self-efficacy: sense of being competent and effective
  • Narcissism: inflated sense of self
  • Self-Concept: what we know and believe about ourselves
  • Self-Schema: beliefs about self that organize and guide the process of self-relevant information

Research Methods

  • Theory: integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events
  • Hypothesis: testable proposition that describes a relationship between events
  • Random Sampling: survey procedure in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion
  • Sample Size: number of participants in a study
  • Framing: the way a question or issue is posed, influencing people's decisions and expressed opinions
  • Correlational Research: studying naturally occurring relationships among variables
  • Experimental Research: studying cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors while controlling others
  • Random Assignment: process of assigning participants to experiment conditions
  • Independent Variable: experimental factor being manipulated
  • Dependent Variable: variable being measured
  • Replication: repeating a research study
  • Meta-analysis: study of studies

Self in a Social World

  • Spotlight Effect: believing others are paying more attention to our appearance and behavior than they really are
  • Illusion of Transparency: believing our concealed emotions are easily readable by others
  • Self-presentation: expressing oneself to create a favorable impression
  • Self-monitoring: being attuned to the way one presents oneself in social situations
  • Self-handicapping: protecting one's self-image with behaviors that create a handy excuse for later failure

Social Beliefs and Judgments

  • Automatic Processing: effortless, habitual thinking without awareness
  • Controlled Processing: deliberate, reflective, and conscious thinking
  • Priming: activating particular associations in memory
  • Embodied Cognition: mutual influence of bodily sensations on cognitive preferences and social judgments
  • Overconfidence Phenomenon: overestimating the accuracy of one's beliefs
  • Confirmation Bias: searching for information that confirms one's preconceptions
  • Heuristics: thinking strategies that enable quick, efficient judgments
  • Representativeness Heuristic: presuming someone or something belongs to a particular group based on resemblance
  • Availability Heuristic: judging likelihood based on availability in memory
  • Counterfactual Thinking: imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened but didn't

Test your knowledge on the basic concepts of social psychology including social thinking, social influence, social relations, research methods, and theories. Explore key ideas in social psychology such as how people construct social reality, shape behavior, and interact with one another.

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