Indian Constitution: Features and Governance

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12 Questions

When did the Indian Constitution come into effect?

January 26th, 1950

Which of the following is not a fundamental right guaranteed by the Indian Constitution?

Right to property

Who chaired the Drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution?

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar

Which of the following is a directive principle of state policy in the Indian Constitution?

Right to free education

What is one of the key aspects outlined in the Indian Constitution?

Official language

Which year did India gain independence from British rule?


Who chaired the Drafting Committee during the framing of the Indian Constitution?

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar

Which part of the Indian Constitution provides moral guidance to the legislature rather than imposing obligations?


In the Indian Parliament, who represents the nation and heads the executive branch?


Which article of the Indian Constitution specifies that money bills must originate from the Lok Sabha?

Article 78

What was the aim of the Dhar Commission established by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar?

Making recommendations on land revenue settlements

What do the Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) focus on?

Ensuring equal opportunities and minimizing inequality

Study Notes

Indian Constitution

The Indian Constitution is one of the longest written constitutions in the world, with its roots stretching back over hundreds of years through various dynasties like Mauryas, Gupta Empire, Cholas, Pandyas, Vijayanagar empire etc., finally culminating into it after India's independence from British rule. It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on November 26th, 1949, and came into effect on January 26th, 1950.

This constitution serves as the guiding document for the country, outlining key aspects such as citizenship, national emblem, national flag, and adoption of Hindi script in Devnagari as the official writing script, among other things. However, this doesn't mean everything about India is covered under the strict confines of this document; certain issues can still be left open to interpretation, like whether Indian law applies outside sovereign territory.

Fundamental Rights

One of the prominent features of the Indian Constitution is the inclusion of fundamental rights which protect individual freedom within reasonable limits. These rights include equality before the law, prohibition against discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, residence or any of them, cultural and educational rights, and protection in respect of conviction for offenses committed in childhood and unemployment.

Directive Principles of State Policy

Another significant part of the Indian Constitution is the Directive Principles of State Policy. These provisions aim to guide government action towards achieving socioeconomic justice and welfare. They serve as goals for the government to work towards rather than obligations upon it. While these principles do not have the force of constitutional mandate, they provide moral guidance to the legislature while passing laws.

Parliamentary System

The Indian Constitution follows a semi-presidential system, where both the President and Prime Minister hold executive powers. This form of governance separates the power between the President who represents the nation and heads the executive branch, and the Prime Minister who leads the party in controlling a majority in the Lok Sabha (lower house) and forms the Council of Ministers.

Drafting Committee

In drafting the Constitution, Dr B.R Ambedkar chaired the Drafting Committee. Aided by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and Valji Govindji Merchant, he proposed that Indians build their own society, culture, economic conditions, education, philosophy, and political institutions in accordance with their needs and aspirations. The Drafting Committee also took input from the constituencies represented in the Constituent Assembly during the framing of the Constitution.

Articles 1-395

Articles 1-395 deal primarily with governance, administration, and judicial rules. Article 78 discusses how bills related to the Union may originate either from the Rajya Sabha or the Lok Sabha, but if they are money bills, they must always originate from the Lok Sabha. If there are differences between the two Houses, the bill has to be passed again by both houses according to article 117.

Dhar Commission

Dr B R Ambedkar also established the Dhar Commission, which aimed to make recommendations on land revenue settlements in different parts of the country. The Commission recommended changes in the agrarian structure and actions needed to uplift rural areas.


DPSP refers to the 'Directive Principles of State Policy', mentioned earlier. These guidelines help shape public policies based on socialistic ideals, with special emphasis on ensuring equal opportunities and minimizing inequality, promoting international peace, securing just and humane conditions of work, protecting interests of weaker sections, and maintaining balance between nature and human activities.

Explore the key features, roles of different committees, and governance structure outlined in the Indian Constitution, adopted in 1949 and enforced in 1950. Learn about fundamental rights, Directive Principles of State Policy, the semi-presidential system, and the influential Drafting Committee led by Dr B.R Ambedkar.

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