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27 Questions

What is the primary function of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in the kidneys?

To stimulate water reabsorption in the collecting ducts

Which hormone is responsible for promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidney?

Aldosterone

What is the function of juxtaglomerular cells in the kidney?

To secrete renin to restore blood pressure

What is the characteristic of the descending limb of the loop of Henle?

It is permeable to water

What is the primary function of HDL in the body?

Transports cholesterol from the cells and tissues back to the liver for disposal

What is the enzyme that converts angiotensinogen into angiotensin I?

Renin

What is the primary hormone that controls the absorptive state?

Insulin

What is the primary effect of Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH)?

Water retention, dilutional hyponatremia, and concentrated urine

What is the primary function of gluconeogenesis?

To synthesize glucose from non-carbohydrate sources

What is the primary effect of diabetes insipidus?

Polyuria and polydipsia, resulting in dilute urine and increased plasma osmolality

What is the primary function of LDH in the body?

Carries cholesterol from the liver to cells and tissues

What is the primary characteristic of a base?

Accepts a hydrogen ion (H+)

What is the major cation found in the intracellular fluid (ICF)?

Potassium (K+)

Which of the following is a characteristic of an acid?

It can donate a hydrogen ion (H+)

What is the primary function of a buffer in the body?

To maintain a stable pH

What is the major anion found in the extracellular fluid (ECF)?

Both Chloride (Cl-) and Bicarbonate (HCO3-)

What is a characteristic of a base?

It can accept a hydrogen ion (H+)

What is SIADH?

Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone

What is the primary function of the ascending limb of the nephron's loop of Henle?

Impermeable to water

What are the fluid compartments in the body?

Intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid

What are the three hormones that mediate fluid and electrolyte balance?

ADH, aldosterone, natriuretic peptides

What is the Major ICF anions?

Proteins and Phosphate (PO4-)

Where is aldosterone produced?

Adrenal cortex

What is the result of renin's action on angiotensinogen?

Angiotensinogen is converted into angiotensin I

What is the substrate for the enzyme renin?

Angiotensinogen

What is the role of renin in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system?

To convert angiotensinogen to angiotensin I

What is the function of aldosterone?

Promotes sodium retention and potassium excretion

Study Notes

Hormones and Fluid Balance

  • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), Aldosterone, and Natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) mediate fluid and electrolyte balance.
  • ADH stimulates water reabsorption in the kidneys' collecting ducts, regulating water balance and concentrating urine.
  • Aldosterone promotes sodium retention and potassium excretion to regulate blood pressure and fluid balance.

Fluid Compartments

  • The body's fluid compartments include intracellular fluid (ICF) and extracellular fluid (ECF), which includes plasma and interstitial fluid.
  • Major ICF cation: Potassium (K+)
  • Major ICF anions: Proteins and Phosphate (PO4-)
  • Major ECF cation: Sodium (Na+)
  • Major ECF anions: Chloride (Cl-) and Bicarbonate (HCO3-)

Acids and Bases

  • An acid is a substance that can donate a hydrogen ion (H+).
  • A base is a substance that can accept a hydrogen ion (H+).

Buffers

  • A buffer is a solution that resists changes in pH when acids or bases are added, maintaining a stable pH in the body.

Lipid Metabolism

  • HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) transports cholesterol from cells and tissues back to the liver for disposal, considered "good" cholesterol.
  • LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein) carries cholesterol from the liver to cells and tissues, considered "bad" cholesterol.

Gluconeogenesis

  • Gluconeogenesis is the metabolic process by which glucose is synthesized from non-carbohydrate sources, using amino acids, glycerol, and lactate.

Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS)

  • Renin, secreted by juxtaglomerular cells, converts angiotensinogen into angiotensin I, then angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor.
  • Aldosterone promotes sodium retention and potassium excretion to regulate blood pressure and fluid balance.

Nephron Function

  • In the nephron's loop of Henle, the descending limb is permeable to water, while the ascending limb is impermeable to water.

Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH)

  • SIADH is a condition where excessive ADH is released, leading to water retention, dilutional hyponatremia, and concentrated urine.

Diabetes Insipidus

  • Diabetes insipidus is a disorder characterized by an insufficiency of ADH, leading to polyuria and polydipsia, resulting in dilute urine and increased plasma osmolality.

Test your knowledge of hormone functions in the human body, including ADH, aldosterone, and the juxtaglomerular cells' role in regulating blood pressure.

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