Hormones and Their Effects Quiz

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78 Questions

What is the function of the parasympathetic division of the ANS?

Reduce blood flow to digestive organs

Where does the sympathetic response originate from in the spinal cord?

Thoracolumbar system

Which ganglia are associated with the enteric nervous system and digestion?

Collateral ganglia

How do sympathetic axons change as they pass through the ganglia?

They become unmyelinated and longer

What type of synapse is found in the sympathetic fibers running to the adrenal medulla?

Adrenergic synapse

Which cranial nerve carries fibers to control pupil size?

CN III

Which receptors are activated by nicotine in the cholinergic system?

Nicotinic receptors

What is the term used to refer to an area of a nerve that houses neurotransmitters but is not at the end like in the somatic nervous system?

Varicosity

What are baroreceptors important for in autonomic reflexes?

Blood pressure regulation

In which system does a long reflex synapse in the CNS?

Parasympathetic system

Which organs have autonomic tone, meaning one system exerts much more control than the other?

Heart

What happens if a person experiences orthostatic hypotension?

Blood pressure and heart rate increase when standing up

Which nervous system cannot have a short reflex?

Somatic nervous system

What happens if light enters one pupil?

Both pupils constrict

Which part of the body experiences referred pain if there's a conscious perception of autonomic pain in an unexpected area?

Heart

What is the control center for many homeostatic mechanisms?

Hypothalamus

Which hormone stimulates the release of bicarbonate to buffer acidic chime and inhibits hydrochloric acid production?

Cholecystokinin

What hormone is responsible for stimulating blood cell production in the bone marrow?

Erythropoietin

Which hormone, produced by the pancreas, stimulates glycogenesis and is anabolic?

Insulin

What is the role of angiotensinogen produced by the liver?

An intermediate stimulus to help bone growth

Which hormone is responsible for making a person feel full after eating and regulating bone metabolism?

Leptin

What hormone is secreted by the thymus and helps develop T lymphocytes?

Thymosins

Which hormone protects the fetus from immune rejection and prepares the breasts for lactation?

(hCG) human chorionic gonadotropin

What is the function of pancreatic polypeptide hormone secreted by PP cells in the pancreas?

Role in appetite and pancreas secretions.

Which organ produces atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in response to atrial stretch due to an increase in blood pressure?

The heart

What hormone is produced by the skeleton that inhibits calcitriol and stimulates insulin production?

Fibroblast growth factor 23

Which type of anemia results from a lack of vitamin B12 or folate?

Vitamin deficient anemia

What is the main function of eosinophils among the granular leukocytes?

Defense against parasitic worms

What is the molecule made of 4 proteins and 4 irons that carries oxygen in erythrocytes?

Hemoglobin

What is the process by which leukocytes are drawn to a chemical?

Chemotaxis

What causes the shape change and reduced oxygen-carrying capacity in sickle cell anemia?

Genetic change in erythrocyte shape

What is the most common type of granular leukocyte known for its quick response against bacteria?

Neutrophil

What is the term for the percentage of oxygen in blood, measured by a pulse oximeter?

Percent saturation

What is the permissive effect in the context of hormones?

A hormone enabling another hormone to act

Which gland is described as the command center for the endocrine system?

Hypothalamus

What is the function of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?

Causes the kidneys to reabsorb more water

What is the role of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus?

Activates adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the anterior pituitary

Which hormone regulates thyroid activity?

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

What causes the release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the posterior pituitary?

Signals from osmoreceptors

What is the main function of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus?

Signals the anterior pituitary to release gonadotropins

What is the role of growth hormone (GH) in the body?

Promotes protein synthesis and tissue building

Which gland connects to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum?

Pituitary gland

What happens when a certain amount of hormone or drug is floating in the blood?

Downregulation happens due to overstimulation of cells.

What do osmoreceptors do in relation to antidiuretic hormone (ADH) release?

Send signals to release ADH when blood osmolarity changes.

What is the main function of melanin-releasing hormone (MRH)?

Stimulates melanin formation in melanocytes.

What is the function of the medial forebrain bundle in relation to the hypothalamus?

It communicates back to the hypothalamus through the amygdala.

Which part of the brain is involved in memory and emotional response?

Amygdala

What is the role of the cardiovascular center in the medulla?

Connecting to cardiac accelerator nerves to increase heart output

How does nicotine affect the autonomic nervous system?

It fires all preganglionic fibers in both divisions.

Which drugs enhance the sympathetic response?

Sympathomimetic drugs

What type of hormones come from lipids?

Steroids

How do lipid soluble hormones travel through the cardiovascular system?

They hitch a ride with proteins since they are hydrophobic.

Which type of hormone travels to a hormone receptor on the cell membrane?

Peptides

What happens to activate proteins when cyclic adenosine phosphate (cAMP) is involved?

$5(7 + 3)$

Why does phosphodiesterase (PDE) turn off cyclic adenosine phosphate (cAMP)?

To regulate the cell's response by turning off cAMP if more hormones are not produced.

What is the function of an alternate second messenger - calcium ion?

Activates G protein to activate phospholipase C (PLC).

What is the paracrine system's mode of action?

It secretes a chemical to affect other nearby cells.

What is the precursor to angiotensin for regulating blood pressure?

Angiotensinogen

What hormone decreases with aging?

Estrogen

Which hormone increases but can lead to osteoporosis?

Parathyroid hormone

What is the normal pH range of blood?

7.35 - 7.45

What is responsible for coagulation and stopping bleeding?

Platelets

What is the percentage of red blood cells in blood known as?

Hematocrit

Where does hemopoiesis occur in the body?

Red marrow in bones

Which protein is the most common in blood plasma and transports fatty acids and steroid hormones?

Albumin

What causes the hemocytoblast to divide and differentiate to produce blood cells?

Cytokines

What is the main function of erythrocytes?

Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide

Where do B cells mature?

Bone marrow

What contributes to immunity and inflammation?

Cytokines

What is the main function of parathyroid hormone (PH)?

Increases blood calcium levels

How does TSH stimulate tryiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) secretion?

By promoting iodine oxidation

What is the main role of aldosterone produced by the adrenal cortex?

Increases sodium levels

Which gland is posterior to the hypothalamus and produces and secretes melatonin?

Pineal gland

What stimulates the retina of the eye to inhibit melatonin secretion from the pineal gland?

Increase in blue light exposure

What is the main effect of cortisol produced by the adrenal cortex?

Inhibits the inflammatory response

What happens as light fades away according to the text?

Promotes drowsiness due to increased melatonin in the blood

What is the role of androgens produced by the adrenal glands?

Supplement estrogen production in females after menopause

What is the main action of calcitonin released by the thyroid gland?

Inhibits bone cell breakdown

Test your knowledge of the hormonal regulation of blood pressure, platelet production, iron release, and the changes in hormonal production with growth and aging. Explore the effects of hormones on insulin sensitivity and the risk of osteoporosis.

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