History of Microbiology Quiz

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Who is credited with inventing the microscope and discovering the microbial world?

Anton von Leeuwenhoek

What did Leeuwenhoek observe in rain water, pond water, and scrapings from his own teeth using his microscopes?

Protozoa, yeasts, and bacteria

Which individual is known for publishing 'On Contagion,' the first known discussion on contagious infection?

Hieronymous Fracastorius

Who believed that living organisms could develop from non-living materials?


What did Leeuwenhoek refer to as 'Little animalcules'?

Protozoa, yeasts, and bacteria

Which invention is said to have a grander view - the telescope or the microscope?

The microscope

Who discovered the causative agent of syphilis in 1905?

Fritz Richard Schaudinn

Which scientist developed the first chemotherapeutic drug?

Paul Ehrich

Which disease did Walter Reed prove was transmitted by mosquitoes?

Yellow fever

Which scientist showed that a virus could cause cancer?

Peyton Rous

Who successfully vaccinated against yellow fever in 1938?

Max Theiller

Which scientist developed penicillin into a usable drug and treated the first patient?

Howard Florey

Who was the first to perform in vitro fertilization with frogs?

Lazzaro Spallanzani

Who performed artificial insemination using a dog?

Lazzaro Spallanzani

Who showed that newts can regenerate some parts of their body if injured or surgically removed?

Lazzaro Spallanzani

Who proved that digestion is not a mere mechanical process of trituration but one of actual chemical solution taking place primarily in the stomach?

Lazzaro Spallanzani

Who introduced vaccination in England in 1718?

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

Who discovered the smallpox vaccine in 1796-1798?

Edward Jenner

Who discovered the 'one gene one enzyme concept' and was awarded the Noble prize in which year?

Tatum in 1958

Which team of scientists proposed the structure of DNA in 1953?

Watson & Crick

Which German physicist was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986 for his work in electron optics, including the design of the first electron microscope?

Ernst August Friedrich Ruska

Which team of scientists discovered oncogenes?

Bishop and Varmus

Which bacterium was the first to have its complete genetic sequence published in 1995?

First complete genetic sequence of a bacterium is published

Which team of scientists showed that DNA is the genetic material in 1944?

Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty

Which scientist is known for refuting the theory of spontaneous generation?

Francesco Redi

Which scientist discovered pepsin and studied it?

Theodor Schwann

Which scientist demonstrated that animal reproduction requires both semen and an ovum?

Lazzaro Spallanzani

Which scientist is known for the invention of the term metabolism?

Theodor Schwann

Which scientist conducted experiments that suggested microbes move through the air and can be killed through boiling?

Lazzaro Spallanzani

Which scientist is known for the discovery of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system?

Theodor Schwann

Study Notes

Ancient Beliefs and Early Discoveries

  • Aristotle and others believed in spontaneous generation, where living organisms can develop from non-living materials (384-322 BC).
  • Hieronymous Fracastorius published "On Contagion," the first known discussion on contagious infection (1546).

Microscopy and Microorganisms

  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek invented the microscope and observed microbes, including bacteria, yeasts, and protozoa (1676).
  • He discovered microorganisms in rainwater, pond water, and scrapings from his own teeth, which he called "little animalcules."

19th and 20th Century Discoveries

  • Emil Adolf von Behring discovered humoral immunity by antibody in 1890.
  • Walter Reed showed that mosquitoes are the vector for yellow fever (1900).
  • Schaudinn and Hoffman discovered that Treponema pallidum causes syphilis (1905).
  • Paul Ehrlich developed the first chemotherapeutic drug (Compound 606) in 1908.
  • Peyton Rous showed that a virus can cause cancer (1911).
  • Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin (1929).
  • Stanley discovered tobacco mosaic virus (1935).
  • Max Theiller developed a successful vaccination against yellow fever and won the Nobel Prize in 1945.
  • Howard Florey developed penicillin into a drug and treated the first patient (1941).

Vaccination and Immunology

  • Lady Mary Wortley Montagu introduced vaccination in England in 1718.
  • Edward Jenner discovered the smallpox vaccine (1796-1798).
  • Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty showed that DNA is the genetic material (1944).
  • Watson and Crick proposed the DNA structure (1953).
  • Sir Frank MacFarlane Burnet discovered immunological tolerance (1967).
  • Cohen, Boyer, Chang, and Helling cloned DNA (1973).
  • The World Health Organization eradicated smallpox in 1977.

Modern Discoveries

  • Luc Montaigner and Robert Gallo discovered HIV as the causative agent of AIDS (1983).
  • Barry J. Marshall discovered Campylobacter pylori from peptic ulcer disease, later named Helicobacter (1984).
  • The first complete genetic sequence of a bacterium was published (1995).
  • Fritz Richard Schaudinn discovered the causative agent of syphilis with Hoffman (1905).
  • Ernst August Friedrich Ruska developed the first electron microscope and won the Nobel Prize in Physics (1986).

Contributors to Biology

  • Francesco Redi was an Italian physician, naturalist, and poet who refuted spontaneous generation (1668).
  • Lazzaro Spallanzani was a Catholic priest who researched spontaneous generation and discovered the importance of semen and ovum in reproduction.

Test your knowledge on the history of microbiology, from Aristotle's belief in spontaneous generation to Anton van Leeuwenhoek's discovery of microbes. This quiz covers key milestones and figures in the development of microbiology.

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