History of Mechanical Ventilation Modes

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What does VV ECMO stand for?

Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

In which condition is VA ECMO ('Cardiac ECMO') indicated?

Myocardiac pump failure

What is the aim of VA ECMO ('Cardiac ECMO')?

Cardiac unloading

What is the condition for using V-AV ECMO?

Cardiorespiratory failure

What does AV stand for in AV CO2 retention?

Arteriovenous

What is a potential advantage of ECCO2R in VV configuration discussed in the text?

Lung saving

What is a potential disadvantage of ECCO2R in VV configuration mentioned in the text?

Bleeding

What is a research topic related to ECLS mentioned in the text?

Long-term stability

What is the purpose of Mini HLM discussed in the text?

Intended use: open heart surgery of newborns

What improvement is associated with 3D membranes for artificial lungs as per the text?

Increased gas transfer rates

In which configuration is VV ECMO less invasive than AV ECCO2R?

Vf-VjAf Configuration

What is the aim of AV ECCO2R?

Reduction of CO2 in a lung protective manner

What is the potential drawback of VV ECCO2R compared to AV ECCO2R?

More blood damage due to pump

When is AV ECCO2R indicated?

Respiratory failure and good heart index

What is the main indication for VV ECMO (Respiratory ECMO) according to the text?

Respiratory failure (ARDS)

What is the main aim of VA ECMO in the VV-Af Configuration mentioned in the text?

Increase cardiac unload

What is the main indication for VV-A ECMO according to the text?

Insufficient venous drainage

What does VV ECMO pump speed typically range from according to the text?

2-3 L/min

Which syndrome does VV-A ECMO aim to address according to the text?

Harlequin Syndrome

In the context of mechanical ventilation, what does SIMV stand for?

Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation

What is a key feature of SIMV in mechanical ventilation?

It allows the patient to breathe spontaneously at any time without interference from the ventilator.

What distinguishes SIMV from other mechanical ventilation modes?

It allows for the use of both controlled and supported breaths.

How does SIMV compare to assist control (AC) mode of ventilation?

AC mode provides a fixed tidal volume, while SIMV allows for variable tidal volume with spontaneous breaths.

What potential downside is associated with Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation (SIMV)?

Reduced patient comfort and increased work of breathing compared to other modes.

What is the main purpose of non-invasive ventilation (NIV)?

To support ventilation and increase the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) in patients with COPD

What is a contraindication for non-invasive ventilation (NIV)?

Gastrointestinal bleeding

What is the main indication for continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)?

Treatment of sleep apnea

What is the main purpose of bi-level positive airway pressure (BPAP)?

To reduce breathing work during exhalation

What is the primary indication for hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO)?

Aiding in wound healing disorder

What is the primary purpose of SIMV in mechanical ventilation?

To allow for spontaneous breathing while providing a minimum number of breaths per minute

What is the main advantage of using SIMV in patients with obstructive lung diseases?

Preventing auto-PEEP by increasing the exhalation time

In what condition might SIMV be discontinued?

Prolonged ventilator dependence

What is the purpose of spontaneous breathing trials during the weaning process from mechanical ventilation?

To test the patient's ability to breathe independently and assess readiness for extubation

After extubation, what intervention might be considered for patients who still require respiratory support?

Non-invasive ventilation

What is a potential future development in invasive ventilation mentioned in the text?

Implementation of smart alarm systems

Explore the evolution and advancements in mechanical ventilation modes, including non-invasive and invasive therapies, as well as the use of extracorporeal life support. Learn about the various ventilation modes used from the 1900s to the present day, and their impact on patient care.

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