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Historical Perspectives: Animism in Healthcare

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What was the primary belief about the cause of illness in early civilizations?

Illness was caused by supernatural forces

What was the role of the nurse in early civilizations?

The nurse provided physical care and herbal remedies to the sick

How did the ancient Greek civilizations view the cause of illness?

Illness was caused by the wrath of the gods due to sin

What was the role of the health care provider in early civilizations?

The health care provider was the medicine man who treated disease through supernatural means

How did the ancient Hebrews view the cause of illness?

Illness was caused by a lack of adherence to the Ten Commandments and Mosaic Health Code

How did the role of the nurse evolve during the early Christian period?

The nurse's role became more formalized and defined in society

What is the primary role of a nurse in the healthcare setting?

Providing care that meets various needs

Which of the following is NOT considered one of the roles a nurse integrates as a caregiver?

Educator

What is the main way nurses prevent illness according to the text?

Educational programs and personal example

Which term describes the act of a nurse facilitating coping with disability or death?

Caregiver

What is NOT a role of a nurse as a caregiver?

Researcher

What is a key responsibility of a nurse as a leader?

Effecting change and functioning with groups

Which nursing role involves making appropriate referrals and facilitating patient problem-solving?

Counselor

What describes the adjustment of living matter to other living things and to environmental conditions?

Adaptation theory

What emphasizes relationships between the whole and the parts of a system?

General systems theory

Which theory outlines the process of growth and development of humans from conception to death?

Developmental theory

What is the method of research conducted to gain insight by discovering meanings based on perceptions?

Qualitative research

Who was the primary theorist behind the General Systems Theory?

Ludwig von Bertalanffy

What differentiates between health and illness in nursing, according to the text?

Defining nursing practice as separate and distinct

Which concept describes abstract images formed as impressions from the environment and organized into symbols of reality?

'Concepts'

In what did Florence Nightingale demonstrate efficient and knowledgeable care?

'Implementing'

'Personal attributes, knowledge base, and clinical experience culminate in the development of blended and QSEN competencies' relates to which framework?

'Framework for formation in professional nursing practice'

What is the primary benefit of implementing EBP in clinical practice according to the passage?

All of the above

How does the passage differentiate between 'wellness' and 'good health'?

Wellness is a more active state of being healthy, while good health is a passive state of not being ill

Based on the passage, which of the following is a characteristic of chronic illness?

Requires special patient education for rehabilitation

In the 'Stages of Behavior' section, what is the main focus of a person in Stage 2: Assuming the Sick Role?

Seeking validation of their illness experience from others

What is the 'classic definition of health' provided in the passage?

Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being

According to the passage, which of the following is a characteristic of an acute illness?

Rapid onset of symptoms

What is the main difference between the terms 'disease' and 'illness' according to the passage?

Disease refers to pathologic changes in the body or mind, while illness is the response of the person to the disease

In the 'Stages of Behavior' section, what is the first indication that a person is experiencing an illness according to the passage?

Recognizing one or more symptoms that are incompatible with their personal definition of health

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of chronic illness mentioned in the passage?

Requires a short period of care or support

According to the passage, which of the following is true about the 'wellness' concept?

Wellness is a term that is used interchangeably with health

What is the most common format used to ask clinical questions in evidence-based practice?

PICOT

Which level of evidence is considered the strongest in evidence-based practice?

Level 1

What type of evidence provides the strongest support in evidence-based practice?

Systematic reviews

What question should be asked during the critical appraisal of evidence in evidence-based practice to determine if the results are reliable?

Are the results valid?

In evidence-based practice, what should be done if a proposed change is too costly or too risky?

Consider a different approach

Which step in evidence-based practice involves evaluating whether the expected outcomes resulted from the change?

Evaluation of outcomes

What is the primary rationale behind involving patients in decision-making about their care in evidence-based practice?

To improve patient satisfaction and outcomes

What is the purpose of disseminating the outcomes of an evidence-based practice change?

To share knowledge and best practices

What should be done if a patient does not want to proceed with an evidence-based change supported by research?

Respect their decision and explore alternatives

What method provides more reliable verification of nasogastric tube placement than x-ray but is often not preferred due to cost and risk?

Ultrasound examination

What is the primary focus of quantitative research?

Analyzing numbers or statistical data

Which of the following is an example of a dependent variable?

The variable being studied or determined as a result

Which type of quantitative research examines cause-and-effect relationships under highly controlled conditions?

Experimental research

What is the primary ethical concern regarding the protection of human subjects in research?

Obtaining informed consent from participants

What does the 'P' in the PICOT framework stand for?

All of the above

Which type of quantitative research explores and describes events in real-life situations?

Descriptive research

What is the primary purpose of basic research in quantitative studies?

To generate and refine theory

Which requirement for ethical research involves minimizing risks and maximizing potential benefits?

Favorable risk-benefit ratio

What is the primary purpose of correlational research in quantitative studies?

To examine the type and degree of relationships between variables

Which type of quantitative research examines cause-and-effect relationships in clinical settings?

Quasi-experimental research

What was the primary role of the 'deaconesses' mentioned in the text?

Caring for the sick and burying the dead

What was the primary reason that nursing became a respected vocation during the Crusades?

Hospitals were built to care for the large number of pilgrims

What was the primary reason for the shortage of people to care for the sick in the early 16th century?

Many monasteries and convents closed down

What was the primary motivation for recruiting women convicted of crimes into nursing in the 16th century?

There was a shortage of nurses due to the closure of monasteries

What was the primary reason that Florence Nightingale was able to elevate the status of nurses during the Crimean War?

She successfully overcame enormous difficulties in organizing nursing care

Which of the following was NOT one of Florence Nightingale's contributions to nursing?

Developing a new theory of nursing that was distinct from medicine

What was the primary aim of nursing practice identified in the text?

To promote health by identifying and maximizing each patient's individual strengths

What is the relationship between health and illness?

Health and illness are interconnected, and nursing aims to promote optimal functioning

What is the key difference between the roles of nurses and doctors according to the text?

Nurses are separate and distinct from doctors, with no overlap in their roles

Which factor can have a significant impact on a person's health behaviors?

Their understanding of the causes of disease

Which of the following is an example given in the text of an environmental cause of illness?

Deaths in older adults from inadequate heating and cooling

Which factor can influence a person's patterns of living and values about health and illness in an often unalterable way?

The family and culture to which they belong

Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the text as an example of an element in the environmental dimension that can influence health and illness?

Genetic predisposition

Which group is more prone to stress-related habits and illness?

High-income groups

Which of the following is an example given in the text of a person's understanding of the causes of disease and the importance of healthy lifestyle behaviors impacting their health?

A young college student with diabetes who follows a diabetic diet but drinks beer and eats pizza with friends

What is the primary characteristic of Stage 3: Assuming a Dependent Role?

The patient accepts the diagnosis and follows the prescribed treatment plan

Which of the following factors may make it difficult for a patient to conform to the treatment recommendations?

All of the above

What is the optimal outcome expected by both caregivers and family during Stage 3?

The patient resumes normal roles

Which stage of illness behavior typically occurs at home or in a rehabilitation center?

Stage 4: Achieving Recovery and Rehabilitation

What is the primary characteristic of Stage 4: Achieving Recovery and Rehabilitation?

The person gives up the dependent role and resumes normal activities

Which of the following is NOT a component of the physical dimension that influences a person's health status and health practices?

Emotional state

Which of the following is an example of how emotions can positively affect health?

Reducing surgical pain with relaxation techniques

What does the intellectual dimension encompass?

Cognitive abilities, educational background, and past experiences

Which of the following statements about the human dimensions is correct?

Each dimension interrelates with the others and influences health behaviors

What is the primary purpose of health education in Stage 4: Achieving Recovery and Rehabilitation?

To assist the patient in returning to a higher level of functioning and health

Study Notes

Research Design and Quantitative Research

  • Quantitative research involves the analysis of numbers and data, whereas qualitative research involves the analysis of words and narratives
  • Basic research, also known as pure or laboratory research, aims to generate and refine theory, and its findings are often not directly useful in practice
  • Applied research, also known as practical research, aims to directly influence or improve clinical practice
  • In quantitative research, a variable is something that varies and has different values that can be measured
  • A dependent variable is the variable being studied, which is determined as a result of a study
  • An independent variable is a condition that is manipulated or identified to determine its effect on the dependent variable

Types of Quantitative Research

  • Descriptive research: explores and describes events in real-life situations, identifying relationships between and among events
  • Correlational research: examines the type and degree of relationships between two or more variables
  • Quasi-experimental research: examines cause-and-effect relationships between selected variables, often in clinical settings
  • Experimental research: examines cause-and-effect relationships between variables under highly controlled conditions, often in a laboratory setting

Protection of Human Subjects

  • Informed consent: the patient's right to consent knowingly to participate in a study without coercion
  • Confidentiality: the right to keep personal information private
  • Protection from harm: the researcher's responsibility to ensure the safety and well-being of participants
  • Christine Grady's seven requirements for evaluating the ethics of clinical research:
    • Value enhancement
    • Scientific validity
    • Fair subject selection
    • Favorable risk-benefit ratio
    • Independent review
    • Informed consent
    • Respect for enrolled subjects

Evidence-Based Practice

  • PICOT framework: helps nurses search for evidence by identifying:
    • Patient/Population of interest
    • Intervention of interest
    • Comparison of interest
    • Outcome of interest
    • Time frame for the study
  • Steps in evidence-based practice:
    1. Formulate a burning clinical question
    2. Search for the best evidence
    3. Critically appraise the evidence
    4. Integrate the evidence with clinical expertise and patient/family preferences
    5. Evaluate the outcomes of the practice change
    6. Disseminate the outcomes of the EBP change

History of Nursing

  • Deaconesses made the first organized visits to sick people in the Middle Ages
  • Florence Nightingale:
    • Established the first training school for nurses
    • Wrote books about health care and nursing education
    • Contributed to the development of modern nursing
    • Recognized the importance of nutrition, occupational and recreational therapy, and continuing education for nurses

Aims of Nursing Practice

  • Four broad aims of nursing practice:
    1. To promote health
    2. To prevent illness
    3. To restore health
    4. To facilitate coping with disability or death

Health and Wellness

  • Health: a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being
  • Wellness: an active state of being healthy, including living a lifestyle that promotes good physical, mental, and emotional health
  • Disease: a medical term, referring to pathologic changes in the structure or function of the body or mind
  • Illness: the response of the person to a disease; a process in which the person's level of functioning is changed when compared with a previous level
  • Classification of illness: acute or chronic
  • Stages of behavior:
    1. Experiencing symptoms
    2. Assuming the sick role
    3. Assuming a dependent role
    4. Achieving recovery and rehabilitation### Historical Perspectives on Nursing
  • Early civilizations believed that illness had supernatural causes, leading to the theory of animism which attributed health and sickness to good and evil spirits
  • In ancient times, the healthcare provider was the medicine man who treated disease by chanting, inspiring fear, or opening the skull to release evil spirits
  • The nurse played a nurturing and caring role, providing physical care and herbal remedies to sick family members
  • As ancient Greek civilizations grew, temples became the centers of medical care, with the belief that illness was caused by sin and the gods' displeasure
  • The ancient Hebrews developed rules for ethical human relationships, mental health, and disease control, with nurses caring for sick people in the home and community as nurse-midwives
  • In the early Christian period, nursing began to have a formal and more clearly defined role in society

Roles of the Nurse

  • Communicator: uses effective interpersonal and therapeutic communication skills to establish and maintain helping relationships with patients
  • Teacher: uses communication skills to assess, implement, and evaluate individualized teaching plans to meet learning needs of patients and their families
  • Counselor: uses therapeutic interpersonal communication skills to provide information, make appropriate referrals, and facilitate the patient's problem-solving and decision-making skills
  • Leader: practices nursing with assertiveness and self-confidence, effecting change and functioning with groups
  • Researcher: participates in or conducts research to increase knowledge in nursing and improve patient care
  • Advocate: protects human or legal rights and secures care for all patients based on the belief that patients have the right to make informed decisions about their own health and lives
  • Collaborator: uses skills in organization, communication, and advocacy to facilitate the functions of all members of the health care team as they provide patient care
  • Caregiver: combines both the art and the science of nursing to promote wellness through activities that prevent illness, restore health, and facilitate coping with disability or death

Nursing Practice Act and Licensure

  • The Nurse Practice Act and Licensure provide guidelines for nursing practice
  • Code of Ethics and Professional Values outline the responsibilities of nurses
  • The nursing process and clinical judgment models guide nursing practice

Historical Figures in Nursing

  • Florence Nightingale: developed a nursing theory, defined nursing practice as separate and distinct, and differentiated between health and illness nursing
  • Nightingale's initiatives: efficient and knowledgeable care, defining nursing practice, and developing a nursing theory

Theories in Nursing

  • General Systems Theory: breaks whole things into parts to understand how they work together in systems
  • Adaptation Theory: defines adaptation as the adjustment of living matter to other living things and to environmental conditions
  • Developmental Theory: outlines the process of growth and development of humans as orderly and predictable, beginning with conception and ending with death
  • Self-Care in Nursing: nurses have the same duties to themselves as to others, including promoting health and safety, preserving wholeness of character and integrity, maintaining competence, and continuing personal and professional growth

Methods of Research in Nursing

  • Quantitative Research: focuses on numeric data and statistical analysis
  • Qualitative Research: gains insight by discovering meanings, with reality based on perceptions that differ for each person and change over time

Explore how early civilizations viewed illness through the theory of animism, which believed that mysterious bodily changes were caused by supernatural forces. Learn about the roles of healthcare providers and nurses in providing treatment based on these beliefs.

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