Geology and Soil Science Terminology Quiz

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What is the term used to refer to the piles of loose rock formed below the source of rock falls?

Talus

During chemical weathering, what is the process that involves the destruction of primary minerals and the production of secondary minerals in igneous and metamorphic rocks?

Decomposition

What is the term used for the decomposed organic debris when it is mixed with soil to give humus?

Detritus

What is the process in which soluble nutrients are lost from the soil due to precipitation or irrigation?

Leaching

What holds uncombined water in the soil through adhesion or cohesion?

$ ext{Clay mineral particles}$

What directly relates the amount of sediment and the size of sediment particles that can be transported in a stream?

Slope of the stream channel

When a stream is unstable and either aggrading or degrading, what does it mean?

$ ext{Deepening or widening due to removal of sediment}$

What type of rocks are softer due to high water content making them easier for physical weathering?

$ ext{Sedimentary rocks}$

What is the process by which minerals precipitate from pore fluids and bind individual grains together to form a rock?

Cementation

What is the term for the very gradual downhill movement of soil, bedrock, and weathered rock fragments?

Creep

What type of sediments contain the mineral remains of organisms or minerals precipitated as a result of biological processes?

Biochemical Sediments

What refers to the way in which the suspended load, transported by the flow, collides with the bed and bank, sometimes anecdotally referred to as 'the sandpaper effect'?

Abrasion

What is caused by sulfur and nitrogen compounds in the air reacting with water to form acids that then fall to the ground?

Acid Rain

What is the chief organic component of soil that is a black colored, homogeneous complex material contributed by living organisms?

Humus

In which environment are sediments deposited or chemically precipitated?

Depositional Environment

Which process involves the physical disintegration or chemical alteration of rocks at or near the Earth’s surface?

Weathering

What is the term for a rapid form of erosion that works primarily under the influence of gravity in combination with other erosional agents?

Mass Wasting

What is the term for a certain form of creep where frozen tundra soils thaw out and gently ‘flow’ or sag downslope?

Solifluction

What is the term for the area in which sediments are deposited or chemically precipitated?

Depositional Environment

What is the term used for a certain form of creep where frozen tundra soils thaw out and gently ‘flow’ or sag downslope?

Solifluction

What is the chief organic component of soil that is a black colored, homogeneous complex material contributed by living organisms?

Humus

What is the term used to refer to the piles of loose rock formed below the source of rock falls?

Rock Fall

What is the process by which minerals precipitate from pore fluids and bind individual grains together to form a rock?

Cementation

What is the term for a surface horizon that largely consists of minerals and appreciable amounts of organic matter?

A-Horizon

What is the process by which a stream's gradient steepens due to increased deposition of sediment?

Aggradation

What is the term for a process where minerals precipitate from pore fluids and bind individual grains together to form a rock?

Cementation

What refers to the very gradual downhill movement of soil, bedrock, and weathered rock fragments due to the wetting and drying of the uppermost ground material?

Creep

What is the term used to describe the way in which the suspended load collides with the bed and bank, sometimes anecdotally referred to as the 'sandpaper effect'?

Abrasion

Test your knowledge of geology and soil science with this quiz covering terms like degradation, depositional environment, sedimentary environment, and humus.

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