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1 Personality

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What was the primary human motivation according to Alfred Adler?

Striving for superiority in a quest for self-improvement and perfection

What is the term for the set of ideas, feelings, images, and symbols that are shared with all humans because of our common ancestral past?

Collective unconscious

According to Horney, what is the primary factor in the development of personality?

Relationship between parents and child

What is the term for universal symbolic representations of particular types of people, objects, ideas, or experiences?

Archetypes

What is the term for a feeling of inadequacy that persists into adulthood?

Inferiority complex

What is the name of the approach developed by the Neo-Freudian Psychoanalysts?

Neo-Freudian Psychoanalysis

What is the main focus of social cognitive approaches to personality?

The impact of cognitions and observation of others' behavior

What is a limitation of learning theories in personality psychology?

They tend to have a highly deterministic view of human behavior

What is the core assumption of humanistic approaches to personality?

People are innately good

What is the main goal of trait theory in personality psychology?

To identify the basic traits necessary to describe personality

What is a criticism of humanistic approaches to personality?

They have difficulty verifying their basic assumptions

What is a benefit of trait approaches to personality?

They allow for the comparison of one person to another

What is personality, according to psychology?

A characteristic way of thinking, feeling, and behaving

Which perspective assumes that personality is primarily unconscious?

Psychodynamic Perspective

What is the primary goal of the Id, according to Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory?

To reduce tension created by primitive drives related to hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses

What is the function of the Superego, according to Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory?

To judge the morality of our behavior

What is the purpose of the Reality Principle, according to Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory?

To resolve conflicts between the Id and the outside world

What is the primary defense mechanism, according to Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory?

Repression

What are the Psychosexual stages, according to Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory?

Developmental periods that children pass through during which they encounter conflicts between the demands of society and their own sexual urges

What is the result of threats to the balance between the Ego, Superego, and Id, according to Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory?

Anxiety

What is the criticism of Freud's theory regarding the Oedipus complex?

It is not universal

What is the limitation of Freud's theory, according to the text?

It lacks conclusive evidence

What is the primary function of the ego, according to the Neo-Freudian Psychoanalysts?

To mediate between the demands of the id and the superego

What is the main criticism of Freud's theory, according to the text?

It neglects the role of sociocultural factors in personality development

What is the collective unconscious, according to Jung?

A set of universal symbolic representations of particular types of people, objects, ideas, or experiences

What is the primary motivation, according to Adler?

The striving for superiority in a quest for self-improvement and perfection

What is the role of the superego, according to Freud?

To incorporate moral principles and values

What is the focus of Horney's neo-Freudian perspective?

The importance of sociocultural factors in personality development

What is the primary function of the unconscious mind, according to Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory?

To act as a determinant of personality

What is the primary drive of the id, according to Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory?

Pleasure and reduction of tension

What is the role of the superego in relation to morality, according to Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory?

It punishes immoral behavior and induces guilt

What is the difference between the unconscious and preconscious mind, according to Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory?

The unconscious mind contains threatening material, while the preconscious mind contains non-threatening material

What is the result of the ego's use of defense mechanisms, according to Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory?

Reduced anxiety and protection of the ego

What is the role of the ego in relation to the id and the outside world, according to Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory?

It acts as a mediator between the id and the outside world

What is the relationship between the id, ego, and superego, according to Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory?

The id and superego are in conflict, while the ego is neutral

What is the primary function of repression, according to Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory?

To push unacceptable impulses out of awareness

What is the role of the superego in relation to the ego, according to Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory?

It harshly judges the ego's decisions

What is the relationship between the unconscious and conscious mind, according to Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory?

The unconscious mind contains material that is not accessible to the conscious mind

Which approach to personality emphasizes the influence of a person’s cognitions and observation of others’ behavior?

Social cognitive

What is the primary goal of humanistic approaches to personality?

To help people achieve self-actualization

What is the attitude of acceptance and respect, according to Carl Rogers?

Unconditional positive regard

What is self-actualization, according to humanistic approaches?

A state of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential

What is a benefit of learning theories in personality psychology?

They have produced important, successful means of treating a variety of psychological disorders

What is the primary function of the ego, according to the Neo-Freudian Psychoanalysts?

To control day-to-day activities

What is the name of the approach developed by Carl Jung?

Analytical Psychology

According to Horney, what is the primary factor in the development of personality?

Social relationships

What is the term for the feelings of inadequacy that persist into adulthood, according to Adler?

Inferiority complex

According to the Neo-Freudian Psychoanalysts, what is the main criticism of Freud's theory?

Too limited in population

What is the term for the universal symbolic representations of particular types of people, objects, ideas, or experiences, according to Jung?

Archetypes

What is the primary emphasis of social cognitive approaches to personality?

The influence of a person's cognitions and observation of others' behavior

What is the main goal of trait theory in personality psychology?

To identify the basic traits necessary to describe personality

What is the core assumption of humanistic approaches to personality?

That people are basically good

What is the primary benefit of learning theories in personality psychology?

They have made personality psychology a scientific venture

What is the primary limitation of learning theories in personality psychology?

They are overly deterministic

What is the primary goal of humanistic approaches to therapy?

To alleviate psychological difficulties by promoting self-actualization

What is the primary role of the ego in relation to the id and the outside world?

To provide a buffer between the id and the realities of the objective, outside world

What is the primary function of repression, according to Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory?

To push unacceptable impulses out of awareness

What is the primary criticism of Freud's theory regarding the Oedipus complex?

It is not as universal as Freud maintained

What is the primary difference between the unconscious and preconscious mind, according to Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory?

The unconscious contains instinctual wishes and desires, while the preconscious contains non-threatening material

What is the primary goal of the id, according to Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory?

To reduce tension created by primitive drives

What is the primary function of the superego, according to Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory?

To harshly judge the morality of our behavior

What is the primary result of threats to the balance between the ego, superego, and id, according to Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory?

Anxiety

What is the primary focus of psychoanalytic theory, according to Freud?

Unconscious forces acting as determinants of personality

What is the primary role of the ego, according to Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory?

To provide a buffer between the id and the realities of the outside world

What is the primary limitation of Freud's theory, according to the text?

All of the above

What is the primary characteristic of the Oral Stage in Freud's psychosexual development theory?

Deriving pleasure from oral activities like sucking, biting, and tasting

During which stage do children become aware of their bodies and develop unconscious sexual desires?

Phallic Stage

What is the result of unresolved conflicts at any stage of Freud's psychosexual development theory?

Fixation or issues in adulthood

When does the Genital Stage of psychosexual development begin, according to Freud?

At puberty

What is the primary focus of the Latency Stage in Freud's psychosexual development theory?

Development of social and cognitive skills

How do parents' attitudes towards potty training impact personality development, according to Freud?

They impact personality development

What is the primary function of defense mechanisms, such as denial and repression?

To cope with internal or external stressors while protecting self-esteem

Which defense mechanism involves attributing one's unacceptable thoughts or feelings to others?

Projection

What is an example of repression, according to the text?

An individual who experienced a traumatic event having no recollection of the details

Which defense mechanism involves redirecting emotions from the original source to a less threatening target?

Displacement

What is an example of rationalization, according to the text?

A person who fails to get a job rationalizing it by saying they didn't really want to work there

Which defense mechanism involves channeling unacceptable urges or impulses into socially acceptable activities?

Sublimation

What is the defense mechanism in which an individual refuses to acknowledge an unpleasant aspect of reality?

Denial

Which defense mechanism involves redirecting emotions from the original source to a less threatening target?

Displacement

What is the primary function of defense mechanisms, such as denial and repression?

To protect self-esteem

Which defense mechanism involves attributing one's unacceptable thoughts or feelings to others?

Projection

What is the defense mechanism in which an individual reverts to a previous stage of development in the face of stress?

Regression

Which defense mechanism involves channeling unacceptable urges or impulses into socially acceptable activities?

Sublimation

What is the primary characteristic of individuals who are high in openness to experience?

They are imaginative, curious, and open-minded.

Which personality trait is associated with self-discipline and reliability?

Conscientiousness

What is the primary emotion associated with the personality trait of extraversion?

Positive emotions

What is the primary focus of the personality trait of agreeableness?

Harmonious relationships

What is the primary characteristic of individuals who are high in neuroticism?

They are prone to negative emotions.

What is the primary purpose of the Big Five Personality traits?

To capture the essential aspects of personality variation

Study Notes

Introduction to Personality

  • Personality: Characteristic way of thinking, feeling, and behaving

Psychodynamic Perspective

  • Psychodynamic approaches to personality: Assume that personality is primarily unconscious
  • Motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which people have little awareness

Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory

  • Psychoanalytic theory: Unconscious forces act as determinants of personality
  • Theory by Freud
  • Conscious: Part of the personality that you are aware of in any given instance
  • Unconscious: Part of the personality that contains the memories, knowledge, beliefs, feelings, urges, drives, and instincts of which the individual is not aware
  • Unconsciousness consists of:
    • Preconscious: non-threatening material that is easily brought to mind
    • Drives: instinctual wishes, desires, demands, and needs hidden from awareness because of the conflict and pain they would cause

Structuring Personality: Id, Ego, and Superego

  • Id:
    • Instinctual, unorganized, inborn part of personality
    • Sole purpose is to reduce tension created by primitive drives related to hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses
    • Pleasure principle
  • Ego:
    • Part of the personality that provides a buffer between the id and the realities of the objective, outside world
    • Reality principle
    • Executive of personality
  • Superego:
    • Personality structure that harshly judges the morality of our behavior
    • Includes the conscience, which prevents us from behaving in a morally improper way
    • Makes us feel guilty if we do wrong

Developing Personality: Psychosexual Stages

  • Psychosexual stages: Developmental periods that children pass through during which they encounter conflicts between the demands of society and their own sexual urges
  • Fixations: Concerns or conflicts that persist beyond the developmental period in which they first occur

Defense Mechanisms

  • Threats to the balance between the ego, superego, and id can result in anxiety
  • Anxiety results in the ego using defense mechanisms to protect itself
  • Defense mechanisms: Unconscious strategies that people use to reduce anxiety by distorting reality and concealing the source of the anxiety from themselves
  • Repression: Primary defense mechanism
    • Ego pushes unacceptable or unpleasant impulses out of awareness and back into the unconscious

Evaluating Freud's Legacy

  • Individual case studies seem supportive, but there is a lack of conclusive evidence, showing that personality is structured consistent with Freud’s theory
  • Sexuality is not the pervasive force that Freud believed it to be
  • The Oedipus complex is not as universal as Freud maintained
  • The first five years of life are not as powerful in shaping adult personality as Freud thought
  • Later experiences warrant attention
  • The ego and conscious thought processes play a larger role in personality than Freud believed

The Neo-Freudian Psychoanalysts: Building on Freud

  • Psychoanalysts who were trained in traditional Freudian theory but who later rejected some of its major points
  • Emphasized the functions of the ego
  • Suggested that it has more control than the id over day-to-day activities
  • Jung's collective unconscious:
    • Inherited set of ideas, feelings, images, and symbols that are shared with all humans because of our common ancestral past
    • Collective unconscious vs personal unconscious
    • Collective unconscious contains archetypes
    • Archetypes: Universal symbolic representations of particular types of people, objects, ideas, or experiences
  • Horney's neo-Freudian perspective:
    • Suggested that personality develops in the context of social relationships
    • Depends on the relationship between parents and child
    • Rejected Freud's notion of penis envy in women
    • Stressed the importance of cultural factors in the determination of personality
  • Adler and the other neo-Freudians:
    • Alfred Adler – Proposed that the primary human motivation is striving for superiority in a quest for self-improvement and perfection
    • Birth order plays an important role in personality
    • Inferiority complex – Describes adults who have not been able to overcome the feelings of inadequacy they developed as children

Learning Approaches

  • B.F.Skinner's behaviorist approach:
    • Personality is a collection of learned behavior patterns
    • Humans are infinitely changeable through the process of learning new behavior patterns
  • Social cognitive approaches to personality:
    • Theories that emphasize the influence of a person's cognitions and observation of others' behavior, in determining personality

Evaluating Learning Approaches to Personality

  • Learning theories have:
    • Helped make personality psychology a scientific venture
    • Tend to share a highly deterministic view of human behavior
    • By focusing on observable behavior and the effects of their environments
    • Maintains that behavior is shaped by forces beyond the individual's control
    • Produced important, successful means of treating a variety of psychological disorders

Humanistic Approaches

  • Emphasize people's innate goodness and desire to achieve higher levels of functioning
  • Rogers and the need for self-actualization:
    • State of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential, each in a unique way
    • Unconditional positive regard: Attitude of acceptance and respect on the part of an observer, no matter what a person says or does
    • Conditional positive regard depends on one's behavior

Evaluating Humanistic Approaches

  • Benefits:
    • Highlights the uniqueness of human beings
    • Guides the development of a form of therapy designed to alleviate psychological difficulties
  • Criticisms:
    • Difficulty of verifying basic assumptions of the approach
    • Making the assumption that people are basically “good”

Trait Approaches

  • Trait theory: Model of personality that seeks to identify the basic traits necessary to describe personality
  • Traits: Consistent, habitual personality characteristics and behaviors displayed across different situations
  • Costa and McCrae's Big Five Personality Traits

Evaluating Trait Approaches to Personality

  • Benefits:

    • Provide straightforward explanation of people's behavioral consistencies
    • Allow comparison of one person to another
    • Influence the development of several useful personality measures
  • Drawbacks:

    • Validity of trait conceptions of personality
    • Do not provide explanations for behavior### Personality
  • Personality is the characteristic way of thinking, feeling, and behaving

  • It is a collection of learned behavior patterns and can be changed through the process of learning new behavior patterns

Learning Approaches to Personality

  • Focus on observable behavior and the effects of environmental forces
  • Deterministic view of human behavior
  • Helped make personality psychology a scientific venture
  • Produced important, successful means of treating various psychological disorders

Humanistic Approaches

  • Emphasize people’s innate goodness and desire to achieve higher levels of functioning
  • Rogers and the need for self-actualization
  • Self-actualization: State of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential, each in a unique way
  • Unconditional positive regard: Attitude of acceptance and respect on the part of an observer, no matter what a person says or does

Evaluating Humanistic Approaches

  • Highlights the uniqueness of human beings
  • Guides the development of a form of therapy designed to alleviate psychological difficulties
  • Difficulty of verifying basic assumptions of the approach
  • Making the assumption that people are basically “good”

Trait Approaches

  • Trait theory: Model of personality that seeks to identify the basic traits necessary to describe personality
  • Traits: Consistent, habitual personality characteristics and behaviors displayed across different situations
  • Costa and McCrae’s Big Five Personality Traits

Evaluating Trait Approaches to Personality

  • Provide straightforward explanation of people’s behavioral consistencies
  • Allow comparison of one person to another
  • Influence the development of several useful personality measures
  • Validity of trait conceptions of personality
  • Do not provide explanations for behavior

Psychodynamic Perspective

  • Psychodynamic approaches to personality: Assume that personality is primarily unconscious
  • Motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which people have little awareness
  • Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory: Mapping the Unconscious Mind

Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory

  • Unconscious forces act as determinants of personality
  • Conscious: Part of the personality that you are aware of in any given instance
  • Unconscious: Part of the personality that contains memories, knowledge, beliefs, feelings, urges, drives, and instincts of which the individual is not aware
  • Preconscious: non-threatening material that is easily brought to mind
  • Drives: instinctual wishes, desires, demands, and needs hidden from awareness because of the conflict and pain they would cause

Structuring Personality

  • Id, ego, and superego
  • Id: instinctual, unorganized, inborn part of personality
  • Ego: Provides a buffer between the id and the realities of the objective, outside world
  • Superego: Personality structure that harshly judges the morality of our behavior

Developing Personality

  • Psychosexual stages: Developmental periods that children pass through during which they encounter conflicts between the demands of society and their own sexual urges
  • Fixations: Concerns or conflicts that persist beyond the developmental period in which they first occur

Psychosexual Stages

  • Oral Stage: Infants derive pleasure from oral activities like sucking, biting, and tasting
  • Anal Stage: Focus on bowel and bladder control
  • Phallic Stage: Children become aware of their bodies and develop unconscious sexual desires
  • Latency Stage: Sexual impulses are dormant, and children focus on developing social and cognitive skills
  • Genital Stage: Begins at puberty, where the individual's sexual desires reawaken and are directed towards others in a mature way

Defense Mechanisms

  • Unconscious strategies that people use to reduce anxiety by distorting reality and concealing the source of the anxiety from themselves
  • Repression: Primary defense mechanism
  • Other common defense mechanisms include denial, projection, rationalization, displacement, sublimation, and regression

Learn about the psychodynamic perspective on personality, including Freud's psychoanalytic theory. Understand how unconscious forces shape our personality and behavior.

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