Filipino Literature Figures Quiz

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30 Questions

What does Bienvenido Lumbera argue regional literature is in relation to national literature?


In what year was Executive Order No. 236 issued?


Under what administration was the Order of National Artist originally administered by?

CCP (Cultural Center of the Philippines)

Which Republic Act jointly administers the National Artist awards with NCCA?

Republic Act No. 7356

How many ethnolinguistic groups are there in the Philippines?


What does the language diversity in the Philippines pose among people?


Who is acknowledged as the Mother of Philippine Literature?

Edith L. Tiempo

Which Filipino writer pioneered the development of short story as a lyrical prose-poetic form?

Francisco Arcellana

Who is known for writing about Filipino life and the Filipino in the world?

N.V.M. Gonzales

Who made it to the Guinness Book of World Records as the only person to make music using a leaf?

Levi Celerio

Which Filipino lyricist and composer wrote 4000 songs and enriched Philippine music?

Levi Celerio

What did Levi Celerio translate, rewrite, and create anew the lyrics for?

Traditional melodies

Who wrote 'Florante at Laura'?

Francisco Baltazar

What is the literary form of 'Florante at Laura'?


What is the literary form of 'Urbana at Felisa'?

Book of etiquette

During which season is 'Florante at Laura' celebrated?


What was the primary form of literature during the Prehistoric Period in the Philippines?

Oral literature

What type of works were common during the Prehistoric Period?

Riddles, proverbs, folk songs

What literary approach focuses on looking at the text itself and not external factors?


Which technique in writing allows characters' thoughts to flow freely?

Stream of Consciousness

What literary approach argues that the life of the author provides insights into the literary work?

Biographical Approach

Which short story is considered to have birthed modern Filipino writing in English?

Dead Stars by Paz Marquez-Benitez

In drama, what is the element that refers to the setting and how it convinces the audience?


What element of drama involves the storyline?


Who is the author of 'A Vindication of the Rights of Women'?

Mary Wollstonecraft

What literary theory destabilizes our understanding of sexuality and argues that sex and gender are fluid?

Queer Theory

What is the term for the act of turning words into one's own or another language?


Which two authors are credited as the first producers of vaudeville in the Philippines?

Tom Wolfe and Truman Capote

What was the aim of GENDER AND QUEER THEORY?

To critique and spotlight gays, lesbians, and queer people

What was the tool for education that theaters became in the Philippines after World War II?

A tool for education

Study Notes

Literature Overview

  • Literature is understood as the body of written works that come in the form of prose and poetry.
  • Derived from the Latin word "littera," meaning "writing formed with letters."

Periods of Philippine Literature

  • Prehistoric Period:
    • Oral literature was used because writing was not yet invented.
    • Works included riddles, proverbs, sayings, maxims, and folksongs.
    • Epic, one of the forms of oral literature, is a long poem derived from ancient oral tradition.
    • Prose works also flourished, including legends, myths, folktales, and fables.
    • Celebrated during Lenten by way of pabasa (cantada/hablada).
  • Spanish Period:
    • Spaniards burned writings to eliminate traces of Philippine literacy.
    • Written in Filipino, Spanish, English, and regional languages.
    • Idea of national and regional literatures emerged.

Filipino Classics and National Artists

  • Canon: Filipino classics with universal themes that withstood the test of time.
  • Bienvenido Lumbera argues that regional literature is a subgenre of national literature.
  • Important Info:
    • Executive Order No. 236 in 2003: Award of Order of National Artist.
    • Proclamation No. 1001 in 1972: aimed to give distinction to Filipinos who made an impact in arts and letters.
    • Republic Act No. 7356 in 1992: jointly administered by CCP and NCCA.
  • Qualifications for National Artist Award:
    • Filipino artists with significant contributions to cultural heritage.
    • Filipino artist accomplishment at its highest level.
    • Promotion of creative expression significant to national cultural identity.
    • Filipino citizens who have dedicated their lives to their work.
    • Artists who have created a substantial and significant body of works.

Notable Filipino Literary Figures

  • Francisco Arcellana: writer, poet, essayist, critic, journalist, and teacher.
  • N.V.M. Gonzales: Filipino novelist, short story writer, essayist, and poet.
  • Levi Celerio: prolific lyricist and composer who translated and rewrote traditional melodies.
  • Edith L. Tiempo: widely acknowledged as the Mother of Philippine Literature, poet, fictionist, teacher, and literary critic.
  • Alejandro R. Roces: scrutinized then-President GMA's administration through his works.
  • A.A. Yuson & G.H. Abad: anthology of protests from Marcos-Duterte administrations.

Literary Criticism

  • Analysis, critique, comparison, scrutiny, and evaluation of literary work.
  • Can be done with literary theories or schools of thought.
  • Formalism: looks at the text itself without considering external factors.
  • Biographical Approach: argues that the life of the author provides insights into the literary work.

Literary Devices and Techniques

  • Stream of Consciousness: allows characters' thoughts to flow freely.
  • Flashbacks: slip into the past.
  • Cliffhangers: evoke readers' curiosity about the ending.
  • Historical Approach: based on historical and cultural events during the time the piece was written.

Elements of Drama

  • Six elements: plot, character, thought, diction, music, and spectacle.
  • Originated from the Greek word "dran," meaning to act or to do.

Other Literary Concepts

  • Gender and Queer Theory: aim to critique the same thing while putting spotlight on gays, lesbians, and queer people.
  • Queer Theory: originally an offshoot of feminism, argues that sex and gender are fluid.
  • Transcreation: describes copywriting content in a source text that needs to be coherent, relevant, etc. in a new language.

Test your knowledge on prominent figures in Filipino literature such as Francisco Arcellana, N.V.M. Gonzales, and Levi Celerio. Learn about their contributions to the development of Filipino literature and their unique writing styles.

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