Filipino Literary Works Quiz

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30 Questions

What is the origin of the word 'literature'?

Latin word meaning letters

Which type of Philippine literature uses metaphors to convey answers to riddles?

Riddles (Bugtong)

During the Spanish Period in the Philippines, what major contribution did the Spanish bring?

Roman Catholic Religion

Which type of Philippine literature was suppressed during the Spanish Period?

BAYBAYIN writing

What was the content of literature during the Spanish Period in the Philippines?

Only religious in nature

Which type of Philippine literature aims to explain the origins of things?

Epics

What is the main focus of the Pasyon in Filipino and Spanish Religious Literature?

Life and adventures of Jesus Christ

Who authored the first Pasyon in 1704?

Gaspar Aquino de Belen

What is the main narrative form of Pabasa in Philippine culture?

Singing

What is the primary theme of Komedya in Philippine literature?

War between Christians and Moros

What is the distinguishing feature of an Awit in Filipino literature?

Measures of 12 Syllables

'Propaganda Literature' in Philippine context aimed to:

Attack Spanish Rulers

What literary genre uses imaginative and rhythmic language to express ideas, emotions, or tell a story?

Poetry

In literature, which element refers to the sequence of events that make up a story?

Plot

Which genre of literature involves works based on real-life information like diaries, personal essays, autobiographies, or scientific papers?

Non-Fiction

According to Aristotle, what must a story have to be considered a story?

Beginning, middle, and end

Which literary genre is performed in front of an audience and is also known as a play?

Drama

What literary element serves as the beginning of the story where characters, setting, and brief background are introduced?

Exposition

What literary work by Del Pilar exposed the greed, ambition, and immorality of some friars in the Philippines?

La Hija del Fraile

Which poet popularly known as 'Batute' created his own generation with his first book of poems?

Jose Corazon de Jesus

What literary form was most prevalent during the American Period in the Philippines?

Short Stories

Who spearheaded a movement to replace the komedya with a new type of drama called 'Sarsuwela'?

Severino Reyes

Which novel gave spirit to the propaganda movement and paved the way to the revolution against Spain?

Noli Me Tangere

What work drew from the period of Revolution, depicting the cruelty of friars and the heroism of the Katipunan soldiers?

Walang Sugat

What is the purpose of foreshadowing in a story?

To hint about events that will unfold later

Which literary technique involves comparing two unrelated objects for their common qualities?

Analogy

In which point of view does the narrator speak directly to the reader, as if engaging with them?

Second Person

What is the purpose of a flashback in a story?

To provide background information and memories

Which term refers to the greatest tension in a story that usually signals how the story will end?

Climax

What does simile involve in writing?

Comparing two unrelated objects for their common qualities

Study Notes

Origin of Literature

  • The word "literature" comes from the Latin word "littera," meaning "letters."
  • Literature refers to a body of written works from a culture, philosophy, or religion, presented in either prose or poetry.

History of Philippine Literature

Pre-Colonial Period

  • All literatures originated from oral traditions.
  • Filipinos were referred to as "natives," "ethnic minorities," or "tribal."
  • Oral literature includes:
    • Riddles (Bugtong) - use metaphors to convey the answer to the riddle.
    • Proverbs (Salawikain) - express wisdom or beliefs from wise men or elderly.
    • Folk songs:
      • Lullabies (Hele) - sung to put babies to sleep.
      • Drinking Song (Tagay) - sung during drinking sessions.
      • Love Song (Harana) - done by men to court women.
      • Songs of Death - sung to immortalize one's good deeds.
    • Folk Tales - chanted orally at feasts and rituals, often to inspire and entertain.
    • Myths - aim to explain how things were created.
    • Epics - long, supernatural narratives about a hero's adventure, aided by spirits.

The Spanish Period

  • The Spanish colonizers first settled in the Philippines in 1565.
  • The Roman Catholic religion was one of the major contributions they brought.
  • The Philippines was colonized for 333 years.
  • Baybayin writing was suppressed as it was considered "blasphemous" by the friars.
  • All literature in this period is religious in nature.
  • Notable works:
    • Doctrina Christiana - the first book published in the Philippines, written by Fr. Juan de Placencia and Fr. Domingo Nieva.
    • Pasyon - a narrative about the Passion, journey, and death of Jesus Christ.
    • Senakulo (Cenaculo) - a reenactment of the Passion of Christ.
    • Komedya - depicts the battle between Christians and Saracens or Moros.

Non-Secular or Non-Religious Literature

  • Revolves around tales, valiance, and adventure.
  • Notable works:
    • Awit - tales of chivalry with a knight saving a princess, in 12 syllables or dodecasyllabic.
    • Korido - a metrical tale or poem, in 8 syllables or octasyllabic, recited to a martial beat.

Propaganda Literature

  • A way of sharing information to influence public opinion.
  • Forms of satires, editorials, and news articles that attacked the Spanish rulers.
  • Notable works:
    • Graciano Lopez Jaena's Ang Fray Botod - exposing the friars in the Philippines.
    • Marcelo H. Del Pilar's Ang Cadaquilaan ng Dios (God's Goodness) - a catechism aimed against parish priests.
    • Dr. Jose Rizal's Noli Me Tangere (Latin: Touch Me Not) - a novel that gave spirit to the propaganda movement.

The American Period

  • Free Verse and New Criticism became popular among poets.
  • Short Stories were the most prevalent literary form.
  • Filipino writers transitioned from using regional languages and Spanish to English.
  • Notable works:
    • Jose Corazon de Jesus' poetry, popularly known as "Batute."
    • Severino Reyes' Sarsuwela (drama in the form of singing) - a Filipino adaptation of the Spanish Zarzuela.
    • Walang Sugat - a drama depicting the cruelty and corruption of friars and the heroism of Katipunan soldiers.

Genres of Literature

  • Genre refers to a type of art, literature, or music characterized by a specific form, content, and style.
  • The 5 main genres of literature are:
    • Poetry
    • Drama
    • Fiction
    • Non-Fiction
    • Criticism

Literary Elements

  • Plot - the sequence of events that make up a story.
  • Exposition - the beginning of the story where characters, setting, and background are introduced.
  • Rising - the complication/conflicts begin to unfold.
  • Climax - the greatest tension in the story.
  • Falling Action - reaching the conclusion where conflicts are resolved.
  • Denoument (French: Ending) - where the story reaches finality.
  • Theme - the central idea, topic, or point of a story.
  • Point of View - the perspective from which the story is told.
    • First Person - seeing the events through the eyes of the characters.
    • Second Person - the narrator is speaking to the reader.
    • Third Person - the narrator is describing what's seen but as a spectator.

Literary Techniques

  • Methods used by writers to craft elements of a story.
  • Examples include:
    • Allegory - telling a story within a story.
    • Allusion - referencing another work.
    • Analogy - comparing two unrelated objects for their common qualities.
    • Back Story - previous events in the story.
    • Foreshadowing - hinting at something that will happen within the story.
    • Flashback - abrupt interjections that further explain a story or character with background information and memories.
    • Imagery - bringing people, places, and events to life.
    • Juxtaposition - the placement of two things together to highlight their differences.

Rhetorical Devices

  • Simile - comparing two fundamentally dissimilar things that have certain qualities in common using "like" or "as."

Test your knowledge on Filipino literary works by authors like Del Pilar, Graciano Lopez Jaena, and Dr. Jose Rizal. Explore themes such as exposing the Friars in the Philippines, tragedies of marrying Spaniards, and critiques on parish priests.

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