Inhaled 1

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38 Questions

Which type of inhaled anesthetic is preferred for inhalation induction due to its low pungency and low blood:gas solubility?

Sevoflurane

What effect do all volatile anesthetics have on blood pressure?

Decrease blood pressure

What cascade of events do volatile anesthetics trigger, similar to a brief ischemic period?

Initiates intracellular events providing myocardial protection

Which factor can affect the MAC of inhaled anesthetics?

Patient's age

What is needed for the delivery of the desired concentration of desflurane due to its low boiling point?

Special vaporizer

Which inhaled agents will trigger Malignant Hyperthermia (MH) in a susceptible patient?

All volatile agents

What effect do volatile anesthetics have on evoked potential monitoring?

Produce predictable effects varying by monitor type

What impact do volatile anesthetics have on cerebral blood flow and CMRO2?

Increased cerebral blood flow and decreased CMRO2

Which of the following is NOT a factor that increases MAC?

Hypoventilation

What is the approximate percentage decrease in MAC per decade from 1 year of age onward?

6%

Which volatile agent produces the least airway irritation?

Sevoflurane

What is the characteristic of MAC-awake?

Patient opens eyes to command

Which factor does NOT change MAC according to the text?

Hyperkalemia

Which volatile agent has varying effects on autoregulation?

Isoflurane

What is the effect of Sevoflurane on CSF resorption?

No change

What is the characteristic of MAC-BAR?

Alveolar concentration that blunts adrenergic response to noxious stimuli

Which volatile anesthetic has the highest blood:gas partition coefficient among the currently available ones?

Isoflurane

What is a unique property of halothane compared to the other volatile agents?

Susceptibility to decomposition

Which volatile anesthetic is known for its extremely rare incidence of immune-mediated hepatitis?

Desflurane

Among the volatile agents, which one has the lowest blood:gas partition coefficient?

Sevoflurane

Which volatile anesthetic produces a dose-dependent decrease in uterine smooth muscle tone?

Halothane

What is a unique adverse effect associated with desflurane among the volatile anesthetics?

Increased inorganic fluoride levels

Which volatile agent has been linked to dose-dependent nephrotoxicity in rats but appears safe in humans?

Sevoflurane

What is the approximate percentage change in cerebral blood flow for each 1mmHg change in pCO2?

~3%

How does hypocapnia affect the increase in cerebral blood flow seen with volatile agents?

Blunts the increase

Why is hypocapnia contraindicated in traumatic brain injury (TBI)?

It increases cerebral blood flow

In the context of focal cerebral injury following incomplete ischemia, what is likely to be minimally different between isoflurane and thiopental when blood pressure is maintained?

Cerebral injury reduction

What contributes to the improvement in cerebral tissue oxygenation when anesthetic agents are used to lower blood pressure?

Moderate increase in cerebral blood flow

What is postoperative cognitive dysfunction characterized by?

Impaired mental processing

What does Barash suggest about the use of volatile agents compared to sedative-hypnotics in improving cerebral tissue oxygenation?

Volatile agents improve oxygenation

Which anesthetic agent is associated with the most improvement over isoflurane in terms of cognitive recovery?

Sevoflurane

What effect does N2O have on coronary steal and ischemia?

May worsen cardiac outcomes

Which volatile agent is recommended to be avoided when using motor-evoked potentials technique?

Isoflurane

What is the effect of volatile agents on ventricular response to an acute increase in preload in cardiac patients?

No change

Which anesthetic agent may slightly prolong the QT interval?

Desflurane

What effect do volatile agents have on blood pressure?

Dose-related decrease

How do volatile agents affect sensitivity to catecholamines in the myocardium?

No change

Which type of changes are better tolerated in terms of anesthetic depth according to the text?

+Gradual changes

Explore the factors that can increase or decrease the Minimum Alveolar Concentration (MAC) of inhaled anesthetics. Learn about CNS neurotransmitter levels, substances like MAOIs and ephedrine, and conditions like hyperthermia that influence MAC values.

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