Extraction of Crude Metals from Ores

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What is the purpose of roasting in the extraction of crude metals from concentrated ores?

To oxidize the concentrated ore

Why is it necessary to convert the concentrated ore into oxides before reducing it to elemental metals?

To make reduction easier

Which of the following elements is NOT removed as an impurity during roasting of sulphide ores?

Oxygen

What happens to the nonmagnetic part of the ore during the extraction process?

It falls away from the magnetic region

In which state does the metal exist in the concentrated ore before reduction?

+1 oxidation state

Why is roasting commonly applied for converting sulphide ores into oxides?

To remove impurities and convert to oxides

What is the basis for interpreting ΔG in metallurgical processes?

The assumption that reactants are in equilibrium with the products

Why is the reduction of oxides of active metals by carbon considered thermodynamically not feasible?

Because the Gibbs free energy change is unfavorable

What does a positive E0 value indicate for the electrolysis process of metal salts?

The reduction is spontaneous

How is the Gibbs free energy change related to the electrode potential of the redox couple?

Inversely proportional

What technique is used for extracting active metals like sodium and potassium from their ores?

Electrochemical methods

When will a redox reaction be considered planned according to the text?

When the e.m.f of the net redox reaction is positive

What is the product formed when borax reacts with acids?

Boric acid

What is a use of borax mentioned in the text?

Identification of coloured metal ions

How is boric acid prepared according to the text?

From borax and colemanite

What is the color of boric acid as per the text?

Colorless

What does boric acid form when reacting with sodium hydroxide?

Sodium metaborate and sodium tetraborate

What is formed when urea fuses with B(OH)3 in an ammonia atmosphere at high temperature?

Boron nitride

What is one advantage of using the vapour phase method for refining metals?

It prevents impurities from crystallizing along with the metal

What is the purpose of an inert gas atmosphere in the melt method?

To prevent the oxidation of metals during purification

Why does impurities move along with the molten zone in the melt method?

Impurities are more soluble in the solid state than in the melt

How are elements like germanium, silicon, and gallium refined in the melt method?

By melting them in an inert gas atmosphere

What happens to impure nickel in the Mond process for refining nickel?

It reacts with carbon monoxide to form a volatile compound

What distinguishes the vapour phase method from the melt method in metal refining processes?

The formation of volatile compounds before decomposition

What are the products formed when heating Potash alum to red hot?

Potassium sulphate, alumina, and sulphur trioxide

What is the result of treating Potash alum with ammonium hydroxide?

Formation of aluminum hydroxide

What are the uses of Alum as mentioned in the text?

Purification of water and water proofing in textiles

Where is carbon primarily found in its native form?

Graphite

Which element occurs as silica in sand and quartz crystal?

Silicon

Learn about the extraction process of crude metals from concentrated ores, including converting the ore into metal oxides and reducing them to elemental metals. Understand the role of magnets in separating magnetic and nonmagnetic parts of the ore.

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