Evolution: Darwin, Wallace, Plato, Aristotle

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Match the following terms with their definitions:

Vestigial organ = An organ that has lost its original function in the course of evolution Structural homology = Similarities in organism structure among different species Developmental homology = Similarities in embryonic development among different species Biological fitness = The ability to reproduce and generate offspring

Match the following scenarios with their outcomes:

Ground squirrel with greater evolutionary fitness = Has more offspring that survive and reproduce themselves Bacteria without antibiotic resistance genes in antibiotic-free environment = Outcompete bacteria that have maintained these genes Insects with genetic variations for DDT resistance = Evolve resistance to DDT over time DDT as a 'silver bullet' against insect pests = Now largely ineffective due to insect resistance evolution

Match the following terms with their examples:

Fossils = Preserved remains or traces of once-living things Homologous structures = Similar gill pouches in embryos of chick, human, and cat Internal organs in frogs, birds, snakes, and rodents = Example of structural homology Staphylococcus aureus with antibiotic resistance genes = Outcompeted in environments lacking antibiotics

Match the concept with the scientist who proposed it:

Theory of Natural Selection = Charles Darwin Great Chain of Being = Aristotle Inheritance of Acquired Traits = Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck Typological Species Thinking = Plato

Match the description with the correct term used in evolutionary thought:

Species Change Over Time = Evolution Organisms Created by God = Perfect Essence Sequence Based on Size and Complexity = Great Chain of Being Population-Level Evolution = Charles Darwin

Match the type of evidence with its role in demonstrating species change over time:

Fossils = Direct Evidence Superposition in Sedimentary Rock = Relative Age Dating Ideas Overturned by Darwin and Wallace = Misconceptions Supernatural Explanation for Species = Not Evidence for Change

Match the term with its definition in evolutionary context:

Scientific Theory = Idea Supported by Experiments Typological Species Thinking = Belief in Fixed Organism Types Evolutionary Thought at Population Level = Change Occurs within Groups Relative Age Dating of Fossils = Determining Order in Rock Formations

Match the concept with its role in understanding evolutionary history:

Plato's Ideal Organisms = Unchanging Essence Belief Aristotle's Classification System = Fixed Types Based on Complexity Darwin and Wallace's Theory = Natural Selection Over Supernatural Creation Lamarck's Idea of Change = Inheritance of Acquired Traits

Match the evolutionary thinker with their concept:

Plato = Perfect essence created by God Aristotle = Great Chain of Being Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck = Incorporated evolution as species change through time Charles Darwin = Proposed evolution at the level of the population

Match the type of evidence with its role in demonstrating species change over time:

Fossils = Shows how species have changed over time Superposition = Allows determining the relative age of fossils in sedimentary rock formations Natural selection = Process by which species adapt to their environment over time Geographic distribution = Shows how species adapt to different environments

Match the following terms with their definitions:

Typological = Describing species based on fixed types and unchanging characteristics Evolution by natural selection = Process where organisms best adapted to their environment survive and reproduce Scientific theory = Idea supported by many different experiments and observations Population thinking = Viewing evolution as changes happening at the level of populations rather than individuals

Match the description with the correct term used in evolutionary thought:

Species change through time = Evolution Organisms organized into sequence based on size and complexity = Great Chain of Being Species adapt to their environment over time = Natural selection Species are fixed types created by God = Typological thinking

Match the scenario with its outcome:

Many different experiments supporting an idea = Validation of a scientific theory Fossils showing gradual change in species over time = Evidence for evolution Species adapting to different environments through generations = Demonstration of natural selection Observation of populations changing gene frequencies over generations = Confirmation of population thinking

Match the following examples of homology with the correct type:

Similar gill pouches in embryos of a chick, human, and cat = Developmental homology The same basic internal organs (kidneys, stomach, heart, and lungs) in frogs, birds, snakes, and rodents = Structural homology Similar bone structure in the limbs of a human, bat, whale, and horse = Structural homology Similar DNA sequences in genes regulating eye development in various species = Molecular homology

Match the following terms with their definitions:

Biological fitness = Ability to reproduce and generate offspring Evolutionary fitness = Success in passing on genes to the next generation Vestigial organ = An organ that has lost its original function through evolution Genetic variation = Differences in DNA sequences among individuals in a population

Match the following scenarios with their outcomes:

Ground squirrel A has greater evolutionary fitness than ground squirrel B = Ground squirrel A has more offspring that survive and reproduce themselves Bacteria with antibiotic resistance genes are placed in an environment without antibiotics = Bacteria with resistance genes are outcompeted by bacteria lacking these genes DDT is no longer effective against certain insects due to resistance evolution = Insect pests have genetic variations resulting in DDT resistance Fossils of extinct giant sloth species found nowhere in nature = Indicates that the giant sloth species are extinct

Match the following terms with their roles in evolutionary understanding:

Structural homology = Highlights similarities in organism structure across different species Developmental homology = Reveals similarities in embryonic development among diverse organisms Genetic variation = Forms the basis for natural selection and evolution within populations Vestigial organs = Provide evidence of evolutionary history by showing remnants of past functions

Match the following concepts with their roles in understanding evolutionary mechanisms:

Biological fitness = Determines an organism's success in passing on its genes to future generations Evolutionary fitness = Reflects an organism's ability to adapt to its environment and reproduce successfully Genetic variation = Drives natural selection by providing diversity for environmental adaptation Vestigial organs = Show evolutionary changes over time by displaying structures with reduced or lost functions

Study Notes

Evolutionary Biology Concepts

  • Match terms with their definitions to understand key concepts in evolutionary biology
  • Match scenarios with their outcomes to understand the consequences of evolutionary processes
  • Match terms with their examples to illustrate evolutionary concepts
  • Associate scientists with their concepts to understand the contributions of key figures in evolutionary thought

Understanding Evolutionary History

  • Match descriptions with correct terms to understand evolutionary thought and its applications
  • Match types of evidence with their roles in demonstrating species change over time to understand the mechanisms of evolution
  • Match concepts with their roles in understanding evolutionary history to grasp the significance of evolutionary processes

Homology and Evolutionary Evidence

  • Match examples of homology with the correct type to understand the significance of homologous structures in evolutionary biology
  • Match terms with their definitions in evolutionary context to understand the language of evolutionary biology

Evolutionary Thinkers and Concepts

  • Match evolutionary thinkers with their concepts to understand the contributions of key figures in evolutionary thought
  • Match concepts with their roles in understanding evolutionary mechanisms to grasp the significance of evolutionary processes in shaping the diversity of life on Earth

Test your knowledge on the researchers who formulated our current theory of evolution, as well as contrasting views such as Plato's idea of perfect essences and Aristotle's Great Chain of Being.

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