Ethics and Moral Philosophy Quiz

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12 Questions

What does the term 'ethics' correspond to etymologically?

Character

Who was the first to recognize the need to define ethical concepts?

Socrates

Where did Plato find his standard of goodness?

In immutable, universal abstractions

What does the term 'ethics' refer to in a philosophical context?

Study of moral right and wrong

What do moral standards typically deal with according to the text?

Actions that can harm or benefit human beings

What are moral standards primarily concerned with?

Morally acceptable and unacceptable actions

What is the role of moral reasoning?

To analyze specific events to determine right or wrong actions

Which ethical framework promotes doing what creates the most happiness for the most people?

Utilitarianism

What is the moral standard for egoism?

Always do what is in your own best interest

How do moral standards differ from non-moral standards?

Moral standards address ethical behavior, while non-moral standards address personal choices

What is the moral standard for Kantianism based on?

Universalizing principles that apply to everyone

How do individuals typically apply moral reasoning?

By applying logic and moral theories to specific dilemmas

Study Notes

Ethics and Moral Philosophy

  • The term "ethics" comes from the Greek word "ethos", meaning character, habit, customs, and ways of behavior.
  • Ethics is also referred to as moral philosophy.
  • The roots of ethics are found in human freedom and the ability to pursue values through choices.

Socrates and Plato

  • Socrates was the first to recognize the need to define ethical concepts and establish a universal standard.
  • Plato found his standard in immutable, universal abstractions and measured goodness by his ideal Form.

Moral Standards

  • A moral standard refers to the norms that determine what actions are morally acceptable or unacceptable.
  • Moral standards deal with matters that can seriously harm or benefit human beings.
  • The validity of moral standards comes from the reasoning that supports them, and they cannot be formed or changed by particular bodies of authority.

Examples of Moral Standards

  • Egoism: Always do what is in your own best interest.
  • Utilitarianism: Always do what creates the most utility (happiness, pleasure, or good) for the most people.
  • Kantianism: Whatever you wish for everyone to do is a moral mandate for all (the universalizing principle).
  • Subjectivism: Do what you think is correct; you are the final arbiter of morality.

Non-Moral Standards

  • Non-moral standards address what we should or should not do from a non-moral perspective.
  • Examples include: Speed limits, Building codes, "Do not walk on the grass", Dress codes, and Grooming codes.

Moral Reasoning

  • Moral reasoning applies critical analysis to specific events to determine what is right or wrong, and what people ought to do in a particular situation.
  • Both philosophers and psychologists study moral reasoning.
  • Moral reasoning applies logic and moral theories, such as deontology or utilitarianism, to specific situations or dilemmas.
  • People are not especially good at moral reasoning, a phenomenon known as moral dumbfounding.

Test your knowledge on ethics, moral philosophy, and the origins of ethical concepts from Greek philosophy to Socrates' contributions. Explore the meaning of 'ethics' and its relation to character, habits, customs, and behavior.

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