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The Reaches (and Limits) of the Enlightenment Imperial Wars and the French Revolution

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Which historical figure is known for her support of the arts and sciences during the Enlightenment era?

Catherine the Great

Catherine the Great ruled which country during the Enlightenment period?

Russia

The French Revolution was primarily caused by:

Economic hardships and inequality

Which Enlightenment concept contributed to the rise of republicanism during the French Revolution?

Classical liberalism

Imperial wars during the Enlightenment era were often fueled by:

Economic competition

How did Enlightenment ideas influence people's actions during imperial wars?

They justified colonial expansion and conquest

Which Enlightenment philosopher's ideas inspired the concept of natural rights, influencing revolutions like the American and French?

John Locke

The French Revolution led to the rise of:

Republican government

What role did Catherine the Great play in promoting Enlightenment ideals in Russia?

She sponsored scientific expeditions

Which Enlightenment concept emphasized individual freedom and limited government intervention?

Classical liberalism

Which of the following is NOT a keyword/concept related to the French Revolution and Enlightenment?

Monarchy

The French Revolution marked a significant shift towards:

Democracy

The Enlightenment encouraged the questioning of traditional:

Religious beliefs

Catherine the Great's support for the arts and sciences aimed to:

Modernize Russia

The French Revolution began in:

1789

Enlightenment philosophers often criticized:

Tradition

Which Enlightenment idea challenged the divine right of kings and promoted the consent of the governed?

Social contract

The French Revolution was triggered by:

The storming of the Bastille

Which Enlightenment philosopher believed in the separation of powers to prevent tyranny?

Montesquieu

The French Revolution resulted in the overthrow of:

The French monarchy

Which Enlightenment idea emphasized the importance of empirical evidence and scientific inquiry?

Empiricism

The French Revolution aimed to replace the monarchy with a:

Republic

Enlightenment thinkers like Voltaire often criticized:

Religious intolerance

The French Revolution was influenced by Enlightenment principles such as:

Separation of powers

Which Enlightenment philosopher's ideas on natural law influenced the Declaration of Independence?

Locke

The Enlightenment challenged traditional forms of:

Religion

The French Revolution resulted in the execution of:

Louis XVI

Which Enlightenment thinker is known for his advocacy of religious tolerance and separation of church and state?

Voltaire

The French Revolution's slogan "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" reflects the influence of Enlightenment ideas on:

Political ideology

Which Enlightenment concept influenced the formation of modern democracies by promoting the idea of the social contract?

Social contract theory

The French Revolution was a response to:

Social inequality

Which Enlightenment philosopher famously argued for the separation of church and state in his work "The Spirit of the Laws"?

Montesquieu

The Enlightenment challenged the authority of:

All of the above

The French Revolution's Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen drew inspiration from which Enlightenment concept?

Social contract theory

Enlightenment ideas spread primarily through:

Universities and salons

Which Enlightenment philosopher's ideas on democracy and popular sovereignty influenced the French Revolution?

Rousseau

The Enlightenment promoted the idea that society should be based on:

Reason

The French Revolution sought to abolish:

Feudalism

Which Enlightenment thinker's ideas on individual rights and limited government influenced the drafting of the United States Constitution?

Locke

The French Revolution sparked a wave of revolutions across:

Europe

The Enlightenment challenged the belief in:

Divine right

Which Enlightenment concept emphasized the pursuit of happiness and individual fulfillment?

Natural rights

The French Revolution's Reign of Terror was characterized by:

Mass executions

Enlightenment thinkers often criticized:

Absolute monarchy

Which Enlightenment philosopher argued for the protection of civil liberties and freedom of speech in his work "On Liberty"?

Mill

The French Revolution resulted in the establishment of:

A republic

Enlightenment ideas challenged the notion of:

Divine right

The French Revolution's Committee of Public Safety was responsible for:

Suppressing counterrevolutionaries

Enlightenment philosophy emphasized the importance of:

Rational inquiry

The French Revolution ended with the rise of:

Napoleon Bonaparte

Where is Russia?

D

Use the following passage to explain what Rousseau described as the "general will"

“As long as several men assembled together consider themselves as a single body, they have only one will which is directed towards their common preservation and general well-being. Then, all the animating forces of the state are vigorous and simple, and its principles are clear and luminous; it has no incompatible or conflicting interests; the common good makes itself so manifestly evident that only common sense is needed to discern it. Peace, unity and equality are the enemies of political sophistication. Upright and simple men are difficult to deceive precisely because of their simplicity; stratagems and clever arguments do not prevail upon them, they are not indeed subtle enough to be dupes. When we see among the happiest people in the world bands of peasants regulating the affairs of state under an oak tree, and always acting wisely, can we help feeling a certain contempt for the refinements of other nations, which employ so much skill and effort to make themselves at once illustrious and wretched?” •-Social Contract, IV, 1

common good, common preservation, pursuit of happiness

What is Montesquieu describing?

"In every state there are three kinds of power: the legislative authority, the executive authority for things that stem from the law of nations, and the executive authority for those that stem from civil law.

By virtue of the first, the prince or magistrate enacts temporary or perpetual laws, and amends or abrogates those that have been already enacted. By the second, he makes peace or war, sends or receives embassies, establishes the public security, and provides against invasions. By the third, he punishes criminals, or determines the disputes that arise between individuals. The latter we shall call the judiciary power, and the other, simply, the executive power of the state."

— The Spirit of Law, XI, 6.

freedom/ branches of government/government power/government system

All the following are ways that ideas were shared in the 1600s and 1700s EXCEPT

private homes

What caused the French Revolution? No more than two right answers.

Imperial wars, like the American Revolution

Study Notes

Enlightenment Era

  • Catherine the Great ruled Russia during the Enlightenment period and supported the arts and sciences.
  • The French Revolution was primarily caused by imperial wars, Enlightenment concepts, and social and economic inequalities.

French Revolution

  • The French Revolution led to the rise of republicanism and the overthrow of the monarchy.
  • The Revolution's slogan "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" reflects the influence of Enlightenment ideas on the movement.
  • The Revolution marked a significant shift towards democracy and the establishment of a new government.

Enlightenment Concepts

  • The concept of natural rights, influenced by John Locke, contributed to the rise of republicanism during the French Revolution.
  • The idea of the social contract, emphasized by Rousseau, influenced the formation of modern democracies.
  • The concept of individual freedom and limited government intervention, advocated by Montesquieu, was a key Enlightenment principle.
  • The Enlightenment emphasized the importance of empirical evidence and scientific inquiry.

Enlightenment Thinkers

  • John Locke's ideas on natural rights and the social contract influenced revolutions like the American and French.
  • Voltaire often criticized traditional forms of authority and the divine right of kings.
  • Rousseau's concept of the "general will" emphasized the common good and the well-being of the community.
  • Montesquieu believed in the separation of powers to prevent tyranny and advocated for the protection of civil liberties.

Spread of Enlightenment Ideas

  • Enlightenment ideas spread primarily through writings, salons, and coffeehouses.

French Revolution Outcomes

  • The French Revolution resulted in the execution of King Louis XVI and the establishment of the Reign of Terror.
  • The Revolution ended with the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte.

Russian Enlightenment

  • Catherine the Great played a significant role in promoting Enlightenment ideals in Russia, supporting the arts and sciences to modernize and westernize the country.

This quiz is about a historical figure who played a significant role in promoting arts and sciences during the Enlightenment era. Who was this influential patron? Test your knowledge and find out!

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