Endoplasmic Reticulum: Rough vs Smooth

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What is considered to be the basic unit of life according to the Cell Theory?

Cells

Which cellular compartment analogy is used to describe that different parts of a cell perform specific tasks efficiently?

Cellular Rooms

What determines the function of nerve cells?

Shape and specific subcellular structures

What is a key aspect of the relationship between a cell's structure and its function?

Structure and function are interconnected

Which is NOT one of the major cellular compartments described in the text?

Cellular Neighborhood

According to the Cell Theory, where do new cells arise from?

Pre-existing cells

What is the process called when homologous pairs of sister chromatids associate with each other?

Synapsis

What is the benefit of the physical exchange between chromosome pieces during crossing over?

Increases genetic variation

In meiosis, how many haploid daughter cells are produced?

4

What are telomeres and their role in cell aging?

Protective caps on the ends of chromosomes that shorten with age

Which process involves the attachment of sugar molecules to proteins, lipids, or nucleic acids unnaturally?

Glycation

What is the programmed cell death mechanism called?

Apoptosis

Which cell division process results in genetically identical daughter cells?

Mitosis

'Chiasma' refers to what specific feature during meiosis?

Crossing over site where chromosomes remain adhered

During somatic cell division, what are the two main events that occur?

Mitosis and cytokinesis

How many pairs of autosomes chromosomes do diploid somatic cells typically have?

22 pairs

What is the main difference between mitosis and meiosis in terms of chromosome number?

Mitosis creates diploid cells, while meiosis creates haploid cells

What is the purpose of karyotype analysis?

To visualize an individual's complete set of chromosomes

What is the role of cytokinesis in cell division?

Division of the cytoplasm

In terms of chromosome number, what does '2N' represent?

Total number of chromosomes in a diploid cell

What major event occurs during fertilization?

Unification of two haploid gametes to form a diploid zygote

What is the main function of the plasma membrane in a cell?

Marking the boundary between the outside and inside of the cell

Which of the following is NOT a feature of the plasma membrane?

Glycogen storage

What type of molecules can easily pass through the plasma membrane?

Small non-polar molecules

Which component of the plasma membrane avoids water and lines up in the central part of the membrane?

Phospholipid tails

What determines the ability of molecules to pass through the plasma membrane?

Size and charge/polarity

Which type of molecules are generally impermeable to the plasma membrane?

Large polar molecules

What do essential cell proteins and large molecules require to enter the cell?

'Mediated' or active transport processes

'Selective permeability' of the plasma membrane refers to its ability to:

'Allow' only specific substances to pass through while excluding others

What is the primary function of Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)?

Protein synthesis and modification

Which organelle plays a role in the synthesis of lipids and steroids like cholesterol and its derivatives?

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

What is the main function of the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)?

Synthesis of lipids

Which organelle stores hydrolases, enzymes responsible for digesting various biological molecules?

Lysosomes

What triggers muscle contraction by being stored in the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum?

Calcium ions (Ca2+)

Which type of ribosomes are associated with Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)?

Free-floating ribosomes

What role does water play in the human body?

Maintains body temperature

Which two systems are primarily responsible for the body's homeostasis?

Nervous system and Endocrine system

What happens when the body's temperature falls below 37ºC (98.6ºF)?

Chemical reactions slow and stop

Which of the following is NOT a nutrient essential for the human body?

Calcium

Why is oxygen crucial for the human body?

Is a source of energy

What percentage of body weight does water typically constitute?

40-60%

How does atmospheric pressure impact the body?

Influences gas exchange

What is the main role of epigenetics in cell biology?

Altering gene expression profile

Which level of structural organization consists of groups of cells and materials that work together to perform a particular function?

Tissues

What is the primary function of the cytoskeleton in a cell?

Determining the shape of the cell

Which organelle is primarily responsible for the synthesis of lipids and steroids like cholesterol?

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

How many levels of structural organization are described above that are part of the human body total organism?

Six

Which cellular component is responsible for maintaining cellular memory in differentiated cells?

Epigenetics

Which endocrine gland is responsible for producing eggs in females?

Ovaries

What is the main function of the thymus gland?

Producing sperm in males

Which organ system is involved in regulating water and electrolyte balance?

Urinary system

In males, which part of the reproductive system carries sperm to the exterior?

Penis

What is the role of the Pineal gland in the endocrine system?

Influence sleep-wake cycles through melatonin secretion

Which body cavity contains the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra?

Ventral cavity

What is the main function of the scrotum in the male reproductive system?

Produce sperm

Which life process involves the development of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized state?

Differentiation

What refers to the sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body, including anabolism and catabolism?

Metabolism

In terms of body systems, which system is responsible for motion of the whole body, individual organs, and even tiny structures inside cells?

Muscular system

What is the primary function of anabolism in metabolism?

Build complex molecules

Which life process refers to an increase in body size resulting from either cell enlargement or cell division?

Growth

In the context of homeostasis, what mechanism allows the body to respond to changes to maintain internal stability?

Feedback control

Which anatomical term refers to the study and description of body positions and regions?

Anatomy

What is the function of the serous membrane in the pleural cavities?

To cling to the surface of the lungs

Which organ is NOT retroperitoneal according to the text?

Spleen

What is the role of the peritoneum in the abdominal cavity?

Covers the abdominal viscera

In which body cavity would you find the tongue and teeth according to the text?

Oral cavity

What is the function of the pericardium in the pericardial cavity?

Covers the surface of the heart

Which cavity is filled with a small amount of lubricating serous fluid according to the text?

Peritoneal cavity

Which structure does the parietal pleura line in the chest wall?

Diaphragm

What term is used to describe organs that are posterior to the peritoneum?

Retroperitoneal

What is lined by the parietal pericardium in the thoracic cavity?

Chest wall

What is unique about organs in retroperitoneal position?

They are posterior to the peritoneum.

What is the primary goal of negative feedback mechanisms in the body?

To maintain a steady state and prevent sudden, severe changes

Which of the following is NOT an example of a homeostatic control mechanism?

Digestion of food

What is the significant difference between negative and positive feedback mechanisms?

Positive feedback increases the original stimulus while negative feedback reverses changes.

In terms of homeostatic control, which process occurs faster: positive or negative feedback?

Positive feedback

What is the role of the nervous system in maintaining homeostasis?

To coordinate fast responses in homeostatic control

Which body processes involve homeostatic positive feedback mechanisms according to the text?

Childbirth and blood clotting

What is the fundamental difference between the nervous and endocrine systems in homeostasis maintenance?

The nervous system is faster, while the endocrine system is slower in response.

What is a typical outcome of negative feedback mechanisms if there is a change in a controlled condition?

'Ideal' values will be maintained despite changes

In the anatomical position, what is the position of the subject's feet?

Flat on the floor and directed forward

Which term describes a body lying faceup?

Supine position

What are directional terms used by anatomists for?

Locating body structures

If the body is lying facedown, it is in which position?

Prone position

What does the term 'anatomical position' assume about the human body?

It is in a standard reference position

In a transverse section of the body, the division is into which two parts?

Superior and inferior

What is assumed about the human body in regional terms?

It is in a standard position of reference

What is the function of the parietal layer of a serous membrane?

Lines the walls of body cavities

Which term describes a body lying facedown?

Prone position

Which term describes a membrane that does not open directly to the exterior?

Serous membrane

What do anatomical terms refer to regardless of actual body position?

Standard anatomical positions

What is the term for a cut through the body at a right angle to the sagittal plane?

Frontal section

What is the purpose of the serous fluid found between the layers of a serous membrane?

Allows for movement between layers

Where are the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities located?

Within the trunk region

What is the term for a section that divides the body into left and right parts?

Sagittal section

What is unique about a midsagittal section of the body?

It creates equal right and left parts.

What happens to the body when there is severe blood loss?

Heart cells become weaker, the pumping action of the heart decreases, and blood pressure drops.

What can happen if negative feedback mechanisms become overwhelmed?

Destructive positive feedback mechanisms take over.

How does lifelong good health relate to homeostasis?

Many diseases result from years of poor health behavior that interferes with homeostasis.

What factors contribute to lifelong good health according to the text?

Environment, genetic makeup, air, food, and thoughts.

Why is it mentioned that as we age, our body's control systems become less efficient and less stable?

To emphasize the increased risk of illness due to aging.

What is the consequence of positive feedback mechanisms taking over in the body?

Development of serious consequences.

How does severe blood loss impact heart cells?

It weakens heart cells and reduces their efficiency.

What is one example provided in the text of a positive feedback cycle that can lead to death?

Severe blood loss

Which life process involves the formation of new cells for tissue growth, repair, or replacement?

Reproduction

What is the term for the motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells, and tiny structures inside cells?

Movement

Which life process involves the development of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized state?

Differentiation

How does the body respond to changes in the environment according to the text?

Responsiveness

What is the term used to describe the ability of the body to maintain internal stability?

Homeostasis

What is the primary function of stem cells in the process of differentiation?

Development into specialized cells

In terms of cell processes, what is an increase in body size that results from an increase in cell size or number?

Growth

'Anabolism' and 'catabolism' are processes involved in which broader concept?

'Metabolism'

Learn the differences between rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), including their functions in protein synthesis, lipid synthesis, and detoxification. Explore how ribosomes are involved in protein synthesis in RER, while SER is specialized in lipid and steroid synthesis.

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