Protein Synthesis and Secretion in Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

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23 Questions

Where do cytoplasmic ribosomes bound to the rough ER synthesize certain proteins?

Rough ER

What is the role of chaperones in the rough ER?

Assisting protein folding

Which process occurs for secreted proteins in the ER lumen?

Glycosylation and disulfide bond formation

Which cells produce antibodies?

Plasma cells

Where are polypeptide hormones insulin and glucagon produced?

Pancreatic islets of Langerhans

What renders the outer mitochondrial membrane permeable to molecules?

Porin proteins

What is the function of infoldings, or cristae, in the inner mitochondrial membrane?

Increase surface area

Where do the initial stages of glucose degradation occur in eukaryotic cells?

Cytosol

How many ATP molecules per glucose molecule are typically generated in the initial stages of glucose degradation in eukaryotic cells?

2

Which organelle contains an extensive internal system of interconnected membrane-limited sacs called thylakoids?

Chloroplasts

Except for vacuoles, what are the largest and most characteristic organelles in plant and green algae cells?

Chloroplasts

What is the primary function of transport proteins in the vacuolar membrane of plant cells?

To allow the passage of water, ions, and nutrients into the vacuoles

Why do plant vacuoles exert hydrostatic pressure on the cell?

Because of the influx of water caused by osmosis

What is the role of the space between the inner and outer nuclear membranes in animal cells?

It is continuous with the lumen of the rough endoplasmic reticulum

What is the composition of nuclear pores in the nuclear membrane?

They are composed of specific proteins called nucleoporins

What is the primary function of the Golgi complex?

To transport and modify proteins and lipids

What is the permeability of the vacuolar membrane to small molecules?

It is poorly permeable to small molecules

What is the function of the transport vesicles that bud from the trans side of the Golgi complex?

To transport proteins to be secreted and membrane proteins out of the complex

What is the role of the cis, medial, and trans regions of the stack of Golgi cisternae?

To modify proteins to be secreted and membrane proteins differently, depending on their structures and their final destinations

What is the function of the vacuoles in plant cells?

To store small molecules and enable a cell to elongate rapidly

What is the function of the luminal enzymes in the Golgi complex?

To modify proteins to be secreted and membrane proteins differently, depending on their structures and their final destinations

What is the role of the transport vesicles that fuse with the cis region of the Golgi complex?

To fuse with the cis region of the Golgi complex and deposit protein contents

What is the function of the Golgi complex in a cell?

To modify proteins to be secreted and membrane proteins differently, depending on their structures and their final destinations

Learn about the process of protein synthesis and secretion in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, including the roles of cytoplasmic ribosomes, translocation proteins, chaperones, and enzymatic modifications. Understand how proteins are synthesized, folded, and modified before secretion from the cell.

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