Ecocriticism and Literature Quiz

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18 Questions

What was the early concentration of ecocriticism in literature?

Pastoral imagination on Anglo-American Romanticism, lyric poetry, and literary nature writing

How did the Industrial Revolution influence the development of ecocriticism?

Led to later work on environmental philosophy and politics of genre, place, region, and nation

What is the central interest of literature-environment studies?

Interconnectedness between human life/history and physical environments on works of imagination

What did first-wave ecocriticism attach special value to?

Aesthetics and ethics of place-attachment at a local or regional scale

Which areas were particularly focused on by first-wave ecocriticism?

Exurban (inner suburban) areas like pastoral/farmlands and wilderness

What is the key focus of literature and the environment studies?

Exploring the interconnectedness between human life/history and physical environments in works of imagination

What do conservation efforts in Western societies typically focus on?

Habitats and species

Define 'Biophilia' as mentioned in the text.

Biophilia is the sense of human connectedness to nonhuman living beings.

What perspective does ecocriticism offer on humans?

Posthumanist perspective

What has ecocriticism succeeded in doing according to the text's conclusion?

Focalising the environment as a pressing priority

What promise do the critical approaches generated by ecocriticism offer?

A deeper, more nuanced grasp of environmental issues

What does the text suggest about the future direction of ecocriticism?

It may remain loosely networked in terms of initiatives and provocations

What prompted literary scholars, philosophers, and historians to become actively engaged with the climate question around the 1970s?

Global warming and the environmental crisis due to questionable human activities

According to Greg Garrard in his book Ecocriticism (2004), how does he describe ecocriticism?

An avowedly political mode of analysis

How does Lawrence Buell differentiate between the First and Second waves of environmental criticism?

Twentieth Century criticism focused on nature writing and wilderness, while 21st-century works engage with topical environmental issues like gender, urban, and class.

What concept did 'ecological critics' or ecocritics raise awareness about?

Human exploitation of nonhuman nature and ecological degradation

In the context of environmental criticism, what does 'romanticising of Nature' refer to?

The romanticized view of nature in the First Wave of environmental criticism

What are some of the contemporary issues that 21st-century environmental criticism is increasingly concerned with?

Gender, urban, and class issues

Study Notes

Early Development of Ecocriticism

  • Early concentration of ecocriticism in literature was on the romantic and pastoral traditions.
  • The Industrial Revolution influenced the development of ecocriticism by highlighting the consequences of human activities on the environment.

Key Focus of Literature and Environment Studies

  • The central interest of literature-environment studies is the exploration of the relationship between human culture and the natural environment.

First-Wave Ecocriticism

  • First-wave ecocriticism attached special value to the preservation of wilderness and the protection of endangered species.
  • Areas particularly focused on by first-wave ecocriticism include the American West, the Amazon rainforest, and the Arctic.

Ecocriticism's Perspective on Humans

  • Ecocriticism offers a perspective on humans as part of the natural world, rather than separate from it.

Key Concepts

  • Biophilia refers to the innate human love for nature and the natural world.
  • Ecocriticism raises awareness about the concept of the Anthropocene, which highlights human impact on the environment.

Contemporary Issues in Ecocriticism

  • 21st-century environmental criticism is increasingly concerned with contemporary issues such as climate change, sustainability, and environmental justice.
  • Ecocriticism also examines the romanticising of Nature, which refers to the idealization of the natural world without considering its complexities.

Defining Ecocriticism

  • According to Greg Garrard, ecocriticism is an interdisciplinary approach that examines the relationships between literature, culture, and the environment.
  • Lawrence Buell differentiates between the First and Second waves of environmental criticism, with the First wave focusing on the preservation of wilderness and the Second wave focusing on more urban and industrial environmental issues.

Impact and Future Directions

  • Ecocriticism has succeeded in generating critical approaches to understanding human relationships with the environment.
  • These approaches offer a promise for rethinking human engagement with the natural world and promoting sustainable practices.
  • The text suggests that the future direction of ecocriticism will involve a continued exploration of the intersections between literature, culture, and the environment.

Test your knowledge on the relationship between literature, environmental crisis and ecocriticism. Explore how literary scholars, philosophers, and historians engage with climate issues since the 1970s.

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