Drugs for Parkinson's and Alzheimer's - Key Points

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What is the most common form of parkinsonism?

Parkinson disease

Which neurotransmitters are implicated in causing Parkinson disease?

Dopamine and acetylcholine

What is the main effect of Parkinson disease on the body?

Affects posture and locomotion

What theory suggests the cause of Alzheimer disease to be degeneration of cholinergic neurons?

Cholinergic hypothesis

Which of the following drugs can cause pseudoparkinsonism as an adverse reaction?

Lithium

Which of the following nonpharmacologic measures can lessen symptoms of parkinsonism?

Exercise

What part of the brain experiences degeneration in Parkinson disease?

Substantia nigra

Parkinson disease is characterized by which neurotransmitter imbalance?

Dopamine and glutamate

Which neurologic tract does Parkinson disease affect?

Extrapyramidal motor tract

Which neurotransmitter deficiency is associated with Alzheimer disease?

Acetylcholine

What is the chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disorder with marked cognitive dysfunction?

Alzheimer disease

Which neurotransmitter is considered inhibitory?

Dopamine

What is the primary cause of symptomatic movement disorders in Parkinson's disease?

Imbalance between dopamine and acetylcholine

Which drug category aims to replace the dopamine deficit in Parkinson's disease?

Dopamine replacements

What is the role of carbidopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease?

Inhibits the enzyme dopa decarboxylase in the peripheral nervous system

Which drug acts directly on dopamine receptors in the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and GI tract?

Bromocriptine mesylate

What is the primary purpose of monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitors in Parkinson's disease treatment?

Prevent the breakdown of dopamine

What is the function of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors when taken with a levodopa preparation?

Prolong the action of levodopa

Which drug is recommended by the FDA to treat hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson's disease psychosis?

Pimavanserin

What are common side effects of anticholinergic drugs used to treat Parkinson's disease?

Dry mouth and urinary retention

What may occur with high levodopa dosages?

Impaired voluntary movement (dyskinesia)

What effect may high doses of selegiline have?

Hypertensive crisis due to tyramine metabolism

What should be frequently monitored when taking tolcapone?

Serum liver enzymes

What is the primary characteristic of Alzheimer disease?

Marked cognitive dysfunction

Which factors are thought to influence the occurrence of Alzheimer disease?

Genetic predisposition and environmental factors

How do acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors work in treating Alzheimer disease?

By increasing acetylcholine in neuron receptors

What is the primary effect of AChE inhibitors in treating Alzheimer disease?

Increasing cognitive function

Which drug is a reversible AChE inhibitor used to treat mild to moderate Alzheimer disease?

Galantamine

Aside from memory loss, what other symptom is commonly associated with Alzheimer disease?

Aggressive behavior

Which neurotransmitter does AChE inhibitor drugs like donepezil affect?

Acetylcholine

What is the current status of finding a cure for Alzheimer disease?

'The cure for Alzheimer disease is unknown'

What is the etiology of Alzheimer disease according to the text?

Multiple factors including genetic predisposition, virus, infection, or inflammation

Which drugs are considered AChE inhibitors according to the text?

Tacrine and galantamine

Which of these symptoms is NOT commonly associated with Alzheimer disease?

Muscle weakness

What type of dementia is Alzheimer disease?

Irreversible dementia only

Learn the key points about Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, including their characteristics, symptoms, and theories about their causes.

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