Disorder of Growth, Differentiation, and Tumour Quiz

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40 Questions

What is the term for abnormal increase in cell number?


Which type of tumor is more likely to invade and spread to other parts of the body?

Malignant tumor

What is the term for the conversion of one cell type into another?


Which intervention involves the use of drugs to treat a disease?


What is the term for the increase in cell size without an increase in cell number?


Which term describes a disordered growth resulting in abnormal cells with variable sizes and shapes?


Which type of spread involves secondary tumors in the regional lymph nodes?

Lymphatic spread

What is the molecular basis of carcinogenesis?

Mutations in regulatory genes

What is the main role of oncogenes in carcinogenesis?

Promote cell growth

Which process involves rare implantation of tumor cells post-operation?


True or False: Tumour cells always proliferate slower than their normal counterparts.


Which genes are involved in programmed cell death (apoptosis) according to the text?

Genes regulating apoptosis

What is the hallmark of malignant transformation?


In neoplasia, what term is used to describe the growth of abnormal tissue that exceeds and is uncoordinated with normal tissues?


Which type of tumour is characterized by a high mitotic activity and frequent metastases?


What characteristic distinguishes benign tumours from malignant tumours?

Invasion and metastases

What is the term used to describe the replacement of one adult cell type by another adult cell type, often in response to stress?


Which characteristic is NOT associated with dysplasia?


Tumour cells always proliferate faster than their normal counterparts.


Metastasis can occur through direct seeding of body cavities like the pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities.


Haematogenous spread involves the spread of secondary tumors into regional lymph nodes.


Genes involved in DNA repair are not targeted by genetic damage in carcinogenesis.


Implantation post-operation is a common route of metastasis for cancer cells.


Carcinogenesis is solely a genetic process and does not involve phenotypic changes.


Hypertrophy and atrophy are examples of metaplasia.


Anaplasia refers to the orderly arrangement of cells in a tissue.


Benign tumors are more likely to metastasize compared to malignant tumors.


Dysplasia is a characteristic associated with normal cellular growth.


Immunotherapy is a common treatment option for tumor removal.


Metastasis involves the spread of cancer to distant parts of the body through blood or lymphatic systems.


Anaplasia refers to the process of differentiation where cells develop specialized functions or morphology.


Dysplasia always progresses to cancer.


Metastasis can be observed in both benign and malignant neoplasms.


Benign tumors are more likely to invade and spread to other parts of the body compared to malignant tumors.


Metastases are tumour implants that are continuous with the primary tumor.


Neoplasia always results in the formation of a benign tumor.


Pleomorphism, abundance of DNA, and loss of polarity are morphological changes associated with anaplasia.


Tumour giant cells are typically formed in benign tumors.


Cancer is the common term for all benign tumors.


Metaplasia represents an irreversible change where one cell type is permanently replaced by another.


Study Notes

  • Disorder of growth, differentiation, and tumour is a topic covering growth, differentiation, anaplasia, neoplasia, and tumour.
  • Growth is the process of increasing tissue size through synthesis. Differentiation is the process of specialization in cell function and morphology.
  • Anaplasia is a lack of differentiation, a hallmark of malignant transformation. It implies a reversion to a lower level and is characterized by pleomorphism, disproportionately large nuclei, and loss of polarity.
  • Neoplasia refers to new growth and is an abnormal mass of tissue that grows excessively. It can be benign or malignant, and cancer is the common term for all malignant tumours.
  • Tumours are classified based on their behaviour and the type of tissue from which they originate. Benign tumours are non-invasive and slow-growing, while malignant tumours are invasive and capable of spreading.
  • Metaplasia is a reversible change in which one adult cell type is replaced by another. It may represent an adaptive response to stress and can predispose to malignant transformation.
  • Dysplasia is a term for disordered growth and is commonly encountered in metaplastic epithelia. Dysplastic lesions are often pre-neoplastic and can exhibit pleomorphism, abnormal nuclei, and abnormal mitotic figures.
  • Metastasis is the spread of tumour cells to distant sites and marks a tumour as malignant. It can occur via direct seeding, lymphatic spread, haematogenous spread, or implantation.
  • Carcinogenesis is the process of tumour formation caused by non-lethal genetic damage to a single precursor cell. Four classes of regulatory genes are targeted in this process: growth-promoting oncogenes, growth-inhibiting tumour suppressor genes, genes that regulate apoptosis, and genes involved in DNA repair.
  • In the context of this text, the true statement is that malignant tumour cells often proliferate faster than their normal counterparts.
  • Cancer therapy methods include surgical removal, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and growth hormone therapy.
  • Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, metaplasia, anaplasia, and dysplasia are terms used to describe various pathological changes in tissue.
  • The learning outcomes of this module aim to provide students with a foundational understanding of the principles of general pathology and their application to systematic pathology.
  • Students will learn to define terms for disease description, describe the difference between aetiology and risk factors, and explain the pathogenesis and characteristics of major categories of disease.
  • They will gain knowledge of specific organ disorders and their impact on body systems, understand pathology and clinical chemistry data for clinical diagnosis, and show basic knowledge of key areas of clinical medicine.
  • The module will cover control of disease via medical interventions, public health, and the outcomes of various diseases.

Test your knowledge on growth, differentiation, anaplasia, neoplasia, and tumours. Learn about the definitions of growth and differentiation, the concept of anaplasia, and the characteristics and pathogenesis of neoplasia and tumours.

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