Different Social Science Theories of Education

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According to Consensus Theory, how is social change viewed?

As taking place within the social institutions provided by the system

Which theory posits that society maintains order through domination and power?

Conflict Theory

What is the main focus of Structural Functionalism theory?

Promoting solidarity and stability through societal parts working together

Which theory emphasizes the social construction of meanings through everyday interactions?

Social Interactionist Theory

What does Transformative Education aim to achieve?

Deep and significant changes at an individual level

Inclusive Education is based on which principle?

Right of all learners to quality education meeting basic needs

What is one of the characteristics of Education for the 21st century according to the text?

Embracing diversity

In the context of education, what does Sustainability refer to?

Education for the future

Which global/national trend is characterized by the changing environmental, political, and cultural landscape?


What is the core aim of Inclusive Education?

Democratization of access

Which aspect best represents the concern for human dignity in education according to the text?

Human development

How do students and parents participate in Inclusive Education according to the text?

Setting learning goals and making decisions together

What type of education provisions does the 2013 Enhanced Basic Education Act call for?

Learner-oriented and responsive

What is the main focus of inclusive education?

All learners, especially those traditionally excluded

What major paradigm shift in education is highlighted in the text?

Transition from teacher as sole knower to facilitator of learning

Which educational systems are specifically mentioned as part of inclusive education in the text?


What does the 2015 Education Plan reaffirm regarding education?

Reaffirms inclusive education for all

What is the right highlighted in the text as a basic human right?

Right to education

According to Herbert Spencer, what type of education does an industrialized society require?

Vocational and professional education

What does John Dewey believe is the sole purpose of education?

To contribute to personal and social growth of an individual

According to George Counts, what is education relative to?

A particular society living at a given space and time

What concept did Herbert Spencer emphasize in relation to social development?

Survival of the Fittest

According to John Dewey, what should schools encourage among students?

Sharing, cooperation, and democracy

What type of curriculum did Herbert Spencer advocate for?

Emphasizing practical, utilitarian, and scientific subjects

What is the primary focus of contextualized learning?

Global realities and culture relevant to the learner

Which approach to education focuses on the development of the affective, cognitive, and psychomotor domains?

Integrated approach

What does lifelong education for all refer to?

Borderless education and lifelong learning opportunities for everyone

What does cultural adjustment refer to?

Feeling anxious or uncertain in unfamiliar environments

When might an individual experience cultural adjustment?

When studying abroad or retiring in a new country

What factors can contribute to cultural adjustment for international students studying abroad?

Unfamiliarity with local customs, language, food, and values

Study Notes

Social Science Theories of Education

  • Consensus Theory: a particular political or economic system is considered fair, and social change should occur within the social institutions provided by it.
  • Conflict Theory: society is in a perpetual state of conflict due to competition for limited resources, and social order is maintained by domination and power rather than consensus and conformity.
  • Structural Functionalism: society is a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability.
  • Social Interactionist Theory: the meaning we derive from and attribute to the world around us is a social construction produced by everyday social interaction.

New Developments in Education

  • Transformative Education: an educational process that brings about deep and significant changes (for the better) of an individual, culminating in similar changes at the societal level.
  • Inclusive Education: education based on the right of all learners to quality education that meets basic learning needs and enriches lives.

Trends, Issues, and Developments in Education

  • Competency: determining the roles of teachers as active members of the community and as global citizens responsible for the outcomes of their actions and for developing other citizens.

Global and National Development Trends and Directions in the 21st Century

  • Globalization
  • Changing Environmental/Political and Cultural Landscape
  • The Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Revolution and High Interconnectivity
  • The Changing World of Work
  • Changing Values and Morality
  • Concern for Human Dignity and Human Development

Characteristics of Education for the 21st Century

  • Quality (Excellence, Effectiveness)
  • Equity (Democratization of Access, Inclusive Education)
  • Relevance (Functionality and Meaningfulness)
  • Sustainability (Education for the Future)

Inclusive Education

  • Values diversity and the unique contributions each student brings to the classroom
  • Aims to embrace all people, regardless of race, gender, disability, medical or other needs
  • Students and their parents participate in setting learning goals and take part in decisions that affect them
  • In a truly inclusive setting, every child feels safe and has a sense of belonging

2013 Enhanced Basic Education Act and 2015 Education Plan

  • Calls for learner-oriented and responsive education provisions according to the needs, cognitive and cultural capacity, circumstances, and diversity of all learners
  • Reaffirms inclusive education (education for all)
  • The right to education is a basic human right
  • All children and youth should have access to quality education
  • Inclusive education shall be concerned with all learners, with a focus on those who have traditionally been excluded from educational opportunities

Other Educational Initiatives

  • SPED (Special Education)
  • IPEd (Indigenous People Education)
  • Madrasah Education
  • ALS (Alternative Learning System)
  • ADMs (Alternative Delivery Modes)

Major Paradigm Shift in Education

  • Learner-centered and learning-oriented curriculum
  • From rigid selection of students to more open and multiple standards
  • From prescribed pedagogy to more flexible teaching styles that reflect the uniqueness of the learners' intelligences, motivations, needs, and situations

Contributions of Famous Educators

  • Herbert Spencer: emphasized the importance of practical, utilitarian, and scientific subjects in the curriculum
  • John Dewey: advocated for learning by doing and through experience, and believed that education should contribute to personal and social growth
  • George Counts: believed that education should be based on the needs of a particular society and that schools should cope with social change

Explore key concepts in social science theories of education, including Consensus Theory and Conflict Theory. Understand how these theories shape our understanding of societal structures and dynamics.

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