The Vona du Toit Model of Creative Ability (vdt MoCA)

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102 Questions

What is a characteristic of persons at Level 2 in terms of task concept?

No task concept; basic and elementary concepts disturbed

In the area of leisure, what is a common trait of persons at Level 2?

Unproductive use of free time; aimless/no activity

What is a characteristic of the products created by individuals at Level 2?

Poor quality products; incidentally constructive

What kind of skills do persons at Level 2 exhibit in the area of ADLs?

Basic needs-driven lacking community living skills

How do individuals at Level 2 engage with objects and materials during activity engagement?

Unable to use objects/materials appropriately, except those for routine use

What is the primary role of the therapist described in the text?

Encouraging and providing positive reinforcement for adaptive behavior

In Level 4 of treatment, what is one way the occupational therapist can increase the complexity of activities?

Introducing abstract elements

What describes the 'therapist-directed' phase in the movement within each level of creative ability?

Patient demonstrating both previous and current level behaviors

At Level 4, what support does a patient need to demonstrate behaviors consistent with the beginning of that level?

Therapist's support

What characterizes the transitional phase in the movement within each level of creative ability?

Patient showing readiness to transition to the next level

What can be taught in Level 4 of treatment according to the text?

Specific vocational skills

What is a key aspect to consider when planning activities at Level 4?

Focusing on improving knowledge and skills

Why is it important to use a sample in activities at Level 4?

To learn and work towards a certain standard and quality

What is a characteristic of individuals at Level 4 in terms of behavior?

Able to change behavior according to different situations

What is a characteristic of activities at Level 4 that distinguishes them from lower levels?

They have an outcome for self-evaluation

Why should occupational therapists include experimental components in activities at Level 4?

To provide options for the patients to try out and learn

Which of the following is NOT an attribute of persons at Level 4?

High anxiety in all unfamiliar situations

What is a feature of activity engagement for individuals at level 4?

Ability to follow instructions for 5-7 steps

What should be the minimum number of steps in an activity at Level 4?

5 steps

How do occupational therapists ensure that patients can self-evaluate after an activity at Level 4?

By ensuring there is an outcome for self-evaluation

What is the quality of the product at Level 4 during activity engagement?

Satisfactory quality

What is a challenge faced by individuals at Level 4 in relation to norms?

Difficulty in complying to norms

What is the main focus of norm awareness?

Compliance with social expectations

What does task concept involve?

Knowing the purpose and process of a task

Why is understanding task concept essential for independent living?

To facilitate effective participation in tasks

What role do norms play in the task concept?

Guiding how materials and objects should be used

How does norm awareness contribute to effective living in a society?

By ensuring compliance with social expectations

What level of support do individuals at Level 4 require to sustain effort and participation?

Extensive supervision

In which areas are individuals at Level 4 largely independent according to the text?

Self-care and household management

What treatment aim is mentioned for individuals at Level 4 in the text?

Improve knowledge and skills

What is a common trait of supported employment for individuals at Level 4?

Job modification and coaching

Why do individuals at Level 4 require regular supervision according to the text?

To ensure occupational performance

What is a key feature of the effort exerted by individuals at Level 4 as mentioned in the text?

Erratic

What is the recommended duration for a session involving activities at Level 4?

1 hour

What is a key characteristic of the rules that should be built into group games or activities at Level 4?

Simplicity

What is the purpose of including both familiar and unfamiliar situations in activities at Level 4?

To train task concept and skills in different areas

Why is it important for therapists to encourage social interaction and communication in group activities at Level 4?

To promote engagement and participation

What aspect of activity planning should therapists focus on to train dexterity and coordination at Level 4?

Encouraging the use of different materials and tools

Why is it mentioned that there is no need to set a certain quality standard during activities at Level 4?

To prevent anxiety and pressure on individuals

What is one of the key roles of the therapist when facilitating fun and enjoyment in therapy sessions?

Correcting client's mistakes and encouraging appropriate behavior

In therapy sessions, how does the therapist gradually shift behavioral expectations?

From tolerating inappropriate behavior to teaching more acceptable behavior

What is a significant aspect of engagement in therapy sessions that the therapist allows patients to do at a certain point?

Direct their own exploration

Why is it important for therapists not to display samples of activities during therapy sessions according to the text?

To encourage patient's creativity and exploration

What is a key aspect in the progression of attendance of patients in therapy sessions?

Fetching the patient to attend independently

What strategy does the therapist use to enhance task concept and norm awareness in Level 3 intervention?

Encouraging appropriate social norm behavior like cleaning up spills

What type of supervision is typically needed for a person at Level 3 to produce a reasonable end product?

Direct supervision

What is a key aim of intervention at Level 3 regarding social behavior improvement?

Enhancing norm awareness

In terms of household management, what level of ability is typically observed in a person at Level 3?

Low level of ability

What is a common characteristic of leisure activities for individuals at Level 3?

Chaotic and individualistic

What distinguishes a person at Level 3 in terms of work ability and habits?

Poor work ability and habits

What is a characteristic of the end product of a task completed by a person at Level 3?

Poor quality with constant supervision needed

What type of behaviors does the transitional phase individual demonstrate?

Occupational behaviors consistent with both the current and next level

At what level can the therapist exclusively interview the patient for assessment?

Level 3 & above

In what setting can observation be conducted to determine a patient's creative ability level?

At the patient’s home and other natural settings

What is the social group setting primarily used to assess in a patient?

Communication and social skills

For what purpose is an unfamiliar activity introduced during assessments?

To assess effort and cognitive skills

When should the therapist interview patients according to the text?

Patients at Level 3 or above

What is the primary way in which individuals learn social norms, according to the text?

By engaging in social interactions and experiences

According to Nelson & Jepson-Thomas, what do norms create in every culture?

Conformity

In which areas do norms help individuals become socialized to the culture they live in?

By guiding appropriate behavior and speech

What is the function of appearance, behavior, and task/activity performance norms in every culture?

To create conformity and socialization

Why is it not acceptable in many societies to make a mess in a communal kitchen while preparing a hot drink?

To maintain cleanliness and order

How do individuals typically learn when and where it is appropriate to engage in certain actions or speech?

Through direct experience and social interactions

What is a key factor that contributes to increasing demands of activities for individuals in occupational therapy, as mentioned in the text?

Encouraging naming of objects and people

What can the occupational therapist include in sessions to enhance temporal and spatial awareness for individuals?

Activities requiring orientation to person, place, and time

How can the demands of activities be graded up for individuals in occupational therapy?

Increasing the period of sustained attention required

What characteristic distinguishes activities at Level 4 from lower levels in this model?

Increased need for cooperation

In what way can extending sessions to other facilities like the occupational therapy department impact individuals' therapy sessions?

By providing a broader scope for activities and interactions

What is a key characteristic of individuals at Level 4 with regards to norm awareness during activity engagement?

They find it difficult to comply with norms but will try.

What is the emotional difference seen in individuals at Level 4 compared to lower levels?

They display more refined emotions such as regret and pride.

In what aspect do individuals at Level 4 demonstrate improvement in task completion compared to Level 2?

They are more likely to follow instructions effectively.

How do individuals at Level 4 handle tools and materials during activity engagement?

With limited skills that can be trained further.

What is a distinguishing feature of the emotional repertoire in individuals at Level 4?

They display more refined emotions like regret and pride.

What is the distinguishing characteristic of incidentally constructive action in the exploration of materials and objects?

It is unplanned and unintentional resulting in an end product by chance

How does the tendency to repeat actions or behaviors in similar and different situations impact individuals at the Self-Differentiation level?

It stimulates generalization

What type of action characterizes the first phase in the exploration of materials and objects?

Destructive, unplanned actions with no tangible end product

How does volition differ between individuals at Self-Differentiation level and those at Tone level?

Self-Differentiation individuals are motivated to differentiate themselves from others and objects

What describes persons at the Self-Differentiation level in terms of their actions and behavior?

They exhibit bizzare actions and aggressive behavior

What characterizes the second phase in the exploration of materials and objects?

Unplanned constructive actions leading to end products by chance

What is a key aspect of the therapist's role at Level 4 as described in the text?

Providing information and checking understanding of tasks

Why is it important for occupational therapists to use samples as discussion points at Level 4?

To discuss norms and standards required in activities

What is a common misconception that might arise regarding supervising patients at Level 4?

Supervision is not necessary at this level

What is an incorrect strategy when facilitating patients at Level 4 according to the text?

Providing no feedback or encouragement

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of activities at Level 4 mentioned in the text?

Avoiding any discussion on norms or standards

What distinguishes individuals at Level 4 from lower levels in terms of supervision requirements?

Demanding constant supervision to ensure task completion

What is a common characteristic of individuals at Level 2 in terms of handling materials and objects during activity engagement?

Inappropriate use of objects except for daily routine ones

Which of the following best describes the product quality of individuals at Level 2?

Disturbed basic concepts affecting product quality

What is a distinguishing feature of individuals at Level 3 regarding work ability and habits?

Aimless and unproductive use of free time

In what way do individuals at Level 4 differ from lower levels in terms of behavior?

They repeat actions across different situations

What is a significant aspect of engagement in therapy sessions at Level 4?

Encouraging social interaction and communication

What characterizes activities at Level 4 that distinguishes them from lower levels?

Introduction of abstract elements

In which phase of creative ability movement does the person demonstrate characteristics of both the previous and current levels?

Therapist-directed phase

What is a significant requirement for individuals at Level 4 with regards to norm awareness during activity engagement?

Demonstration of behaviors consistent with social norms

What is a key feature of the therapist's role at Level 2 intervention?

Focusing on basic material exploration

Why is it crucial for occupational therapists to use samples as discussion points at Level 3?

To enhance understanding of complex activities

What is a distinguishing characteristic of incidentally constructive action in the exploration of materials and objects?

Accidental positive outcomes

What distinguishes a person at Level 3 in terms of handling different materials?

Partial recognition of basic tools and equipment

In terms of task management, what is a characteristic of individuals at Level 2?

Lack of awareness of task expectations

What is a distinguishing feature of the end product of a task completed by a person at Level 3?

Poor quality end product often needing constant supervision

Which statement is true regarding individuals at Level 1?

They exhibit poor work ability and habits

What sets individuals at Level 4 apart from lower levels in terms of social norm awareness?

Partial norm awareness

When it comes to leisure activities, what is a common characteristic of individuals at Level 4?

Poorly organized, solitary activities

Study Notes

Levels of Creative Ability

  • The levels of creative ability are a way to assess and understand a person's ability to engage in activities and tasks.

Level 2: Self-Differentiation

  • At this level, individuals may show: • Inappropriate use of objects or materials • No task concept • No norm awareness • Comprehension of only one or two steps • Poor quality of product • Incidently constructive action • Tendency to repeat actions in similar and different situations
  • Characteristics of self-differentiation level: • Disorganised thinking • Bizarre actions • Aggressive behavior • Volition directed towards differentiating self from others and objects

Level 3: Self-Presentation

  • Treatment aims at this level: • Develop task concept • Improve social norm awareness and communication • Improve acceptable behavior in different situations • Improve basic tool handling • Experience fun and enjoyment • Improve self-esteem and decrease anxiety
  • Activity requirements: • Well-organised and structured activities • Use of familiar and unfamiliar situations • Group games that provide enjoyment • Simple rules and instructions • Tasks with 3-4 steps • Emphasis on fun and positive emotional responses
  • Characteristics of self-presentation level: • Poor quality of product • Partial norm awareness • Leisure activity is poorly organized and solitary • Poor work ability and work habits

Level 4: Passive Participation

  • Characteristics of passive participation level: • Ability to change behavior according to different situations • Ability to evaluate own behavior • Extended emotional repertoire • Appropriate material and tool handling • Comprehensive task concept • Evident norm awareness • Ability to follow instructions for 5-7 steps • Quality of product is fair
  • Treatment aims at this level: • Improve occupational performance in ADL and IADL • Improve knowledge and skills • Improve socialization • Improve vocational skills and work habits
  • Activity requirements: • Partially structured activities • Involvement of patients in setting up the structure • Use of samples and standards • Elements of planning and decision-making • Experimental component • Use of tools and 5-7 steps • Outcome for self-evaluation

Norm Awareness

  • Norms are socio-culturally defined and influenced expectations
  • Norms are learned through social interaction
  • Norms create conformity that allows for socialization
  • Examples of norms: • Appearance • Behavior • Task/activity performance

Task Concept

  • Task concept refers to the conceptualization of a task or activity as a whole
  • Understanding task concept is essential for effective engagement and participation in activities
  • Elements of task concept: • Purpose of the task • Process of the task • Materials and objects required • Situation in which the task takes place • Norms for the task • Final product### Level 3
  • A person at Level 3 can explore the use of materials but shows poor quality in handling them.
  • They recognize basic tools and equipment but have poor handling skills.
  • The end product of a task is often of poor quality and requires constant supervision.
  • They can manage 3-4 steps but lack awareness of expectations and outcomes.
  • They have partial task concept and partial norm awareness.
  • In ADL and IADL, they can perform basic self-care with supervision but have poor household management and most IADLs.
  • They need close supervision in community living activities and exhibit poor work ability and poor work habits.
  • Leisure activity is often poorly organized, solitary, and self-focused.

Treatment Aims at Level 3

  • Develop task concept.
  • Improve social norm awareness and communication.
  • Improve acceptable behavior in different situations (norm awareness).
  • Improve basic tool handling.
  • Experience fun/enjoyment.
  • Improve self-esteem and decrease anxiety.

Level 2

  • Persons at this level may be unable to use objects or materials appropriately, except those for routine use.
  • They have no task concept and basic and elementary concepts are disturbed.
  • They show no norm awareness and comprehend or follow only one or two steps.
  • Their products are of poor quality.
  • They manage situations in the same way despite differences between situations.
  • In ADLs, they have habituated skills for simple tasks but are basic needs driven and lack community living skills.
  • In leisure, they exhibit unproductive use of free time.

Level 4

  • Expect more consistent skills and effort.
  • Initiate familiar activities independently.
  • Increase the complexity of activities.
  • Abstract elements can be introduced.
  • Train some specific vocational skills.

Grading Up Activities

  • Increasing period of sustained attention required.
  • Encouraging naming of objects, materials, and people, thereby increasing need for awareness of objects and people in the environment.
  • Increasing the amount of cooperation required when caregivers are helping in self-care activities.
  • Extending sessions from inpatient ward to other facilities (e.g., occupational therapy department).
  • Increasing physical demands of activities (e.g., more range of motion, more control of movement or more strength required).
  • Increasing awareness of temporal and spatial relationship.

Test your knowledge on the levels of self-initiation in developmental psychology. Explore topics such as passive participation, general behavior, emotional repertoire, and activity engagement.

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