Definitions in Epidemiology

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What is a potential method of direct infection for droplet infections?

Droplet nuclei

In utero infection can occur through which route according to the text?

Blood transfusion

Which infection can be transmitted through inhalation of droplet nuclei?

Meningococcal meningitis

Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a mode of HIV transmission in the text?

Blood transfusion

What mode of transmission is characteristic of developed countries for Poliomyelitis?

Respiratory infection only

What is a common feature of droplet infections related to the reservoir and new host?

Crowding; ill ventilation

What is the study of all factors involved in the development of a disease?


Which term refers to a form of immunity that occurs when a significant portion of a population is vaccinated?

Herd immunity

What is the science that deals with the mutual relation between man and his environment?


In epidemiology, what does 'reservoir of infection' refer to?

The person or object that transmits the disease to the host

Which of the following is a risk factor for communicable diseases in developing countries?

Insanitary environment

What is the term for the invasion of the body by pathogenic organisms?


What determines the sequelae of infection?

Host factors

Which of the following is NOT a basic link in the infection cycle?

Pathogen Mutation

In the infection cycle, where is infection maintained in the community?

Reservoir of Infection

Which factor is considered a quantitative determination of infection?

Number of invading organisms

What characteristic differentiates cases from carriers as reservoirs of infection?

Manifestations of disease

Which type of infection cycle involves both human and animal reservoirs?

Yellow fever

What does the term 'epidemiology' refer to?

The study of what happens to people when involved by disease

Which of the following best describes the focus of epidemiology regarding disease occurrence?

Determinants and dynamics of occurrence

What are the components of the infection cycle discussed in epidemiology?

Reservoir, mode of transmission, portal of entry, susceptible host

In epidemiology, what does 'distribution' refer to?

How often diseases occur regarding time, place, and persons

What is one of the objectives of epidemiology?

Identify the factors that cause spread of the disease

Why is it important to understand the determinants and dynamics of disease occurrence in epidemiology?

To guide prevention and control efforts

How are droplet nuclei different from droplet spray?

Droplet nuclei are smaller in size and lighter than droplet spray.

What is a potential risk factor for certain parasitic infections?

Using polluted water for drinking and food preparation

How do houseflies and possibly cockroaches contribute to the transmission of infections?

By carrying and spreading organisms mechanically

What is the main mode of transmission for haemolytic streptococci causing pharyngitis?

Direct droplet infection

What distinguishes droplet infection from ingestion infections?

Droplet infection involves respiratory mucosa while ingestion infections affect the gastrointestinal tract.

Why can droplet nuclei remain suspended in the air for hours?

They are smaller in size and lighter than spray droplets.

Explore key definitions in epidemiology including etiology and ecology. Learn about the factors involved in the development of diseases and the study of the mutual relation between man and his environment. Understand determinants of disease and health related to hosts, agents, and environment.

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