Controls Selection in Research Studies

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24 Questions

What is a common method used to investigate the association between diet and colorectal cancer?

Selecting patients with colorectal cancer and a control group without the disease.

Why are incident cases preferred in research studies?

They are more representative of all cases in a population group.

How should cases be identified in a research study according to the protocol?

From a primary care practice.

Why is it important for cases to be representative in a study?

To ensure accurate results for the defined population group.

What are some potential disadvantages of identifying cases through patient support groups?

Difficult to reach patients who might not be members of such groups.

In research studies, why might some studies focus on only part of the spectrum of a disease?

To better understand specific aspects of the disease.

What should normally be used in a case–control study for data analysis?

Odds Ratio

What should be taken into account when interpreting results of a case-control study?

Criteria for causality

Why is data in case-control studies prone to biases?

Data are retrospective

What is an advantage of using case-control studies over cohort studies?

Suitable for rare diseases

In case-control studies, what is calculated using the formula OR = (a/c) / (b/d)?

Odds Ratio

Which test can be employed for data analysis in case-control studies, besides the odds ratio?

Chi-squared test

What is the main aim of a case-control study?

To compare historical exposure to risk factors between diseased and non-diseased individuals

How do case-control studies differ from cohort studies?

Case-control studies are retrospective while cohort studies are prospective

What is the role of controls in a case-control study?

Controls provide a basis for comparison with the cases

Why are case-control studies considered easier and quicker to complete compared to cohort studies?

Cohort studies require follow-up over a long period of time

In a case-control study investigating a protective effect, what would be the expected outcome regarding exposure to the risk factor?

Cases would have lower exposure to the risk factor than controls

What is the most important principle when selecting controls for a study?

Randomly selecting controls from the population

Which type of study design is more prone to biases according to the text?

Retrospective case-control studies

Why is recalling biases a particular problem in case-control studies?

Cases are more likely to recall exposures than controls

How does having more controls per case affect a study?

It helps exclude chance as an explanation for any association

What is a suitable way to select controls for a study?

Randomly selecting controls from the same population as the cases

Why is it important for controls in a study to be representative of people without the disease?

To ensure that any associations are not confounded by disease presence

Interviews in a case-control study should be structured and ask the same questions of both cases and controls to avoid:

Recall bias

Learn about the importance of selecting appropriate controls in research studies to ensure representative and reliable results. Understand the criteria for choosing controls and how they should be matched to cases for accurate findings.

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